Digital Herbarium
of Flowering Plants
of Northrhine-Westfalia in Germany

Biology>Botany>Herbarium NRW
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Introduction:

This site displays a small collection of photographs from local flowering plants species, occurring within the boundaries of the federal state NRW in Germany. It is thought to replace the former pages of the botanical field trips made during the module 'Biodiversity of the Plants' at the University of Bonn. During these short field trips, which were aimed at basic identification of local plants, it had become obvious how little the participants (including myself) knew about the plants growing in local habitats. Even among this group of biology students many of the encountered species could not be properly named and identified. From my experience such ignorance of the local flora, as exemplified by our small group, cannot be regarded as an exception, but is instead a widespread phenomenon. The causes for this lack of basic taxonomic knowledge are plain to see, but also complex and manifold. The reasons might be best explained in a historical and cultural-geographical context:
Northrhine-Westfalia (NRW) is one of the largest federal states (~34100 km2) in Germany and
Power station plant
Fig. 1: A electricity transformation plant at sunset, highlighting not only the industrial character of the state of NRW, but accordingly also the prioritized meaning of the term 'plant' in NRW.
it is at the same time the most populous state with more than 17 million inhabitants, mostly concentrated in the bigger cities or the urban region of the 'Ruhrgebiet'. During centuries of agricultural and industrial development, which has led to the current population, most of the state's natural habitats were destroyed or degraded. In former times most of the state's area were covered by forests, nowadays, only 26% of NRW is forested, whereby half of these forests are composed of deciduous trees (mostly Fagus sylvatica, the Common Beech) and the other half consisting of non-native, evergreen conifers (mostly spruce, Picea abies, and pine, Pinus sylvestris). Nearly all of these forests are utilized commercially and cannot be regarded as natural or even 'wild'.
Against such background it becomes clear that knowledge of the floral elements has over time diminished, either because species have vanished or have become very rare or because the knowledge itself has become less important and is not regarded as particularly useful anymore, not at least as the value of knowledge is often connected to opportunities for economic exploitation and mainstream cultural interests are shifting accordingly.
Rarely is the capability for recognition of local plants taught in elementary or higher schools, so especially the youth is kept ignorant of the local flora. As part of such general cultural development, knowledge in many fields of interest is restricted to a few specialist and botany is not an exception to this. On the other hand it can not be denied that many people love their gardens and are particularly interested in botanical topics.
Therefore, mostly as a counter-measure to my personal ignorance, I started to document the various plant species encountered everyday or in special habitats by taking photographs. At first this undertaking was quite unordered and did not follow any systematic approach, but soon special places were discovered, which offered a quite diverse and natural flora. Despite this finding, the original ambition, which aimed at collecting only photographs of naturally occurring (i.e. wild) species, was rendered impractible by the highly cultivated landscapes which represent the state of NRW even in rural regions. Often, it was not clear if species were occurring naturally, thriving due to cultivation of other plants or were self-seeded 'escapees' of nearby gardens. So, certain compromises were made and without mimicking a garden ornamental catalog, also cultivated or 'half-wild' species were included in this collection.
Moreover, most of the species were identified quite close (in about a 20 km radius) to my hometown, which is part of the adminstrative district 'Oberberg' and lies within a rural area of smooth mountains with elevations of about 300 to 400 m. The larger part of this region is used agriculturally, but due to the hilly nature of the landscape more in a extensive than a highly industrialized manner. Approximately 50-60% of the area is still forested with mixed species, so that patches of hardwood, especially beech, oak or hornbeam forests alternate with small, monocultural stands of spruce. Interspersed with the forests and at lower elevations the landscape is characterized by meadows, used for raising cattle, or fields for farming crops.
Winter landscape
Fig. 2: A winter landscape.
The latter use of land is not very common and only found at a small scale, because the soil is stony and poor in most occasions. The region gets a fair amount of precipitation (about 1000-1200 mm a year), so that many small creeks and rivers flow through valleys with wet meadows, fen-like patches or alder forests. In summer temperature raises above 30 °C while in winter the mercury column can drop below -20 °C.
So although this page is titled 'Plants of NRW' it only does so, to demarcate the maximum area of recognition, while most of the depicted plants were found in a relative small area, which can nevertheless be regarded as a representative landscape for many environments in the state of NRW and even Middle Europe. Additionally, when searching for 'plants of nrw' using one or the other of popular internet search engines, the results indicate that the term 'plant' is used in NRW mostly in a industrial sense (power plant, coal-burning plant, disposal plant, etc.), which might be regarded a typical use of the term in NRW. Even when searching for the German translation 'Pflanzen NRW' (whereby the word 'Pflanze' in German language use does not have the double meaning as 'plant' in English language) mostly irrelevant results appear. Thus, without getting a bad conscience, the title of this page appears to be fully justified...
The pictures were taken with the built-in camera of a mobile phone or a small pocket camera, so no professional equipment was used. Basic plant identification followed a popular plant guide for Middle Europe, written by D. Aichele and M. Golte-Bechtle [g01]. Where necessary (and when possible), the identification was augmented by the help of a hand lens and one of the standard works of German botany: the often denounced 'Schmeil, Fitschen' [g02]. Most of the German plant names and also the bloom times are taken from these sources, the English plant names were taken from the English Wikipedia, while the botanic authorship and the original publications were investigated from the International Plant Names Index (IPNI). A precise species description (the hardest task...) is still missing in most cases, but will be supplemented over time.
Species are listed in taxonomic order, following, with minor modifications, the scheme of the so-called Cronquist system. Although the Cronquist system is meanwhile regarded as outdated by many botanists and replaced by newer classifications, like those of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG), it still provides a widely accepted scheme which bridges many classical concepts to modern views and ideas.
Unfortunately, I cannot call myself a specialist in taxonomy, so it is quite possible that some species in this collection were misidentified. In cases where identification is regarded obviously unsafe, the species name is prefixed with an asterisk ('*'), as for example the species of the difficult to determine orchid genus Dactylorhiza. Additionally, for most species a determination down to the level of sub-species was not carried out, as such a task requires not only a great experience, but moreover needs often the direct comparison of the species in question, which can only be provided by greater herbaria.
Anyhow, the images can support a basic identification and often exhibit greater detail of intricate features, but further taxonomic investigation can certainly only be provided by consultation of the proper botanical guides and textbooks.
Not at least to make this page available to a wider group of visitors, it is kept in English language. German academic botanists usually have sooner or later to read into the mostly English literature anyway. Nevertheless, for native speakers, a German version of this page is in preparation.
The photographs can freely be used for educational or personal use, as long as the copyright notice and proper referencing is kept in place. Larger, full quality images are available on request under the e-mail address found on the Legal & Disclaimer page.




domain:Eucarya, Eukaryota, Eukaryonta
Notes:Comprise all organisms with a 'real', i.e. distinctive, nucleus, which is enclosed and compartmented by a biomembrane and hosts the cell's genetic information

regnum:Plantae, Haeckel, 1866
Notes:Comprises all plant organisms.
According to certain definitions and characteristics, some clades of plant organisms are included or excluded from that taxonomic classification so that several different definitions coexist:

Plantae sensu lato or Archaeplastidae: This group includes all green plants and the algae groups of the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta. This taxon comprises all photosynthetic organisms which are thought to have derived their chloroplasts from a primary endosymbiosis of an ancestral eukaryote with a blue alga (Cyanobacteriota)

Plantae sensu stricto, Viridiplantae or Chlorobionta: This definition includes all 'real' green plants, i.e. the algae group of the Chlorophyta (including the Charophyta) and all land plants, the Embryophyta. The members of this clade possess chlorophyll a and b, cell walls containing cellulose and plastides bound by two membranes. Furthermore they are capable of producing starch as a storage compound. This group is sometimes denoted as a sub regnum within the regnum Plantae. There is growing evidence that the Charophyta (especially the order of the Charales within the Charophyta) constitute the sister group of the Embryophyta (see the definition below), therefore the Charales and the Embryophyta are often grouped together in an unranked clade denoted as Streptophyta or Streptophytina

Plantae sensu strictissimo, Embryophyta or Metaphyta: This group comprises all land plants with the mosses (Bryophyta) and the vascular plants (Tracheophyta) which in turn are constituted from the clubmosses (Lycopodiophyta), the ferns and horsetails (Pteridophyta) and the seed plants (Spermatophyta)

sub regnum:Chlorobionta
Notes:Comprises all organisms which possess 'real' plastides capable of photosynthesis, a cell wall consisting of cellulose and pectin,
photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b and amylose/saccharose as reserve compounds.
The Taxa Chlorophyta (Green Algae), Bryophyta (Mosses), Pteridophyta (Ferns) and Spermatophyta (Semen Plants) fall under this category.
In the English literature the Chlorophyta are often left out and considered as a group denoted as 'Ordinary Algae'.

phylum:Spermatophyta
English name:Semen Plants
German name:Samenpflanzen
Notes:Comprises all plants which have developed semen as their entities of sexual proliferation, i.e. the zygote develops into an intermediate stage, the so-called embryo, which is commonly embedded in nourishing storage molecules (protein, fat, carbohydrates) and enclosed by layers of a protecting shell (testa, sarcotesta), forming as a whole the semen, which is usually capable to endure longer periods of dormancy before germinating and developing into the adult plant

sub phylum:Angiospermae
English name:Flowering Plants
German name:Bedecktsamer, Blütenpflanzen
Notes:Comprises all plants which are characterized by having a protecting outer layer of tissue around the ovules, constituted by specialized leaves, the so-called carpels.
The carpels of each angiospermic plant form in their entirety the ovule and seed producing female organ, the gynoecium.
Within the APG scheme this taxonomic classification is deprecated.

classis:Magnoliopsida, formerly Dicotyledonae
Notes:Comprises plants, whose germinating seedlings develop two cotyledons (morphologically distinct leaves of the germination stage);
within the APG scheme the taxon Magnoliopsida and also the older taxon Dicotyledonae are regarded as deprecated,
but the division of the flowering plants into dicotyl (Magnoliopsida, dicots) and monocotyl (Liliopsida, monocots) plants is still widely used,
as it provides often crucial and precise characteristics for distinguishing the plants of these two groups

sub classis:Magnoliidae

sub classis:Ranunculidae
Notes:This group of plants is characterized by its tricolpate pollen.

ordo:Ranunculales

familia:Ranunculaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Buttercup family
German name:Hahnenfussgewächse

genus:Ranunculus, L., 1753
English name:Buttercup, Spearwort, Water Crowfoot
German name:Hahnenfuss
Notes:Large genus containing ca. 600 species. Mostly yellow or white, sometimes red or orange flowers with 5, sometimes 6, numerous or none petals.
Many species of the Ranunculus genus are poisonous and are usually avoided by grazing animals.
They contain the glucoside ranunculin which is broken down enzymatically to glucose and the toxin protoanemonin when the plants are macerated.

species: Ranunculus ficaria, L., 1753
Ranunculus ficaria
English Name:Lesser Celandine
German Name:Frühlings-Scharbockskraut, Feigwurz
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.04.2011
Description:
Bloom:March to May
Notes:In the Mideval the leaves were an important source of vitamin C, which is made available by this plant quite early in the year. But only the leaves are edible and must be harvested before the flowering of the plant, because the toxin protoanemonin accumulates in the flowers during bloom. By a recent research work, based on phylogenetic analysis, R. ficaria is placed within the genus Ficaria and renamed to Ficaria verna, Huds., 1762
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Flower of Ranunculus ficaria
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.04.2011

species: Ranunculus flammula, L., 1753
Ranunculus flammula
English Name:Lesser Spearwort, Banewort
German Name:Flammender Hahnenfuss
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:01.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:
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Flower of Ranunculus flammula
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 01.06.2015

species: Ranunculus repens, L., 1753
Ranunculus repens
English Name:Creeping Buttercup, Creeping Crowfoot
German Name:Kriechender Hahnenfuss
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:27.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:
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Flower of Ranunculus repens
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 27.05.2015

genus:Anemone, L., 1753

species: Anemone nemorosa, L., 1753
Anemone nemorosa
English Name:Wood Anemone, Windflower, Thimbleweed, Smell Fox
German Name:Busch-Windröschen, Weisse Osterblume
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.04.2011
Description:
Bloom:March to April
Notes:A. nemorosa is poisonous and contains anemonin and protoanemonin.
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Flower of Anemone nemorosa
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.04.2011

genus:Caltha, L., 1753
German name:Dotterblume

species: Caltha palustris, L., 1753
Caltha palustris
English Name:Kingcup, Marsh Marigold
German Name:Sumpfdotterblume
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.04.2011
Description:
Bloom:March to June
Notes:C. palustris is weakly toxic. The seeds are able to float on water, which facilitates their dispersal. Such mechanism of seed dispersal is commonly denoted as hydrochory.
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Flowers of Caltha palustris
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.04.2011

genus:Aquilegia, L., 1753
German name:Akelei

species: Aquilegia vulgaris, L., 1753
Aquilegia vulgaris
English Name:Common Columbine, European Columbine, Granny's Nightcap
German Name:Gemeine Akelei, Wald-Akelei
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:22.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:The nectarine spurs of A. vulgaris are markedly bend back, quite like a hook,
so that the nectar can only be reached by bumble-bees.
The naturally occurring color of Aquilegia flowers is blue to purplish. Thus, the white colored species shown on image 5 is a cultivated form, found in a local garden.
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Flower of Aquilegia vulgaris
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 22.06.2014

genus:Aconitum, L., 1753
English name:Monkshood
German name:Eisenhut

species: Aconitum napellus, L., 1753
Aconitum napellus
English Name:Monkshood, Aconite, Wolfsbane, Fuzi, Monk's Blood
German Name:Blauer Eisenhut, Echter Sturmhut, Venuswagen
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:17.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:This species is poisonous and contains several toxins. Even touching the leaves is not recommended, as the various toxins may enter via the skin.
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Flower of Aconitum napellus
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 17.06.2014

genus:Clematis, L., 1753
German name:Waldrebe

species: Clematis vitalba, L., 1753
Clematis vitalba
English Name:Old Man's Beard, Traveller's Joy
German Name:Weisse Waldrebe, Gemeine Waldrebe
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:19.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Flower of Clematis vitalba
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 19.08.2013

ordo:Papaverales

familia:Papaveraceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Poppy family
German name:Mohngewächse
Notes:Species of the Papaveracea family produce latex, which is contained within special latex vessels, the so-called articulated laticifers.
This latex sap is often poisonous or contains alkaloids, which are used for medicinal purposes, like the alkaloids of Papaver somniferum.

genus:Chelidonium, L., 1753
English name:Tetterwort
German name:Schöllkraut
Notes:Monotypic genus, containing only one species, Chelidonium majus.

species: Chelidonium majus, L., 1753
Chelidonium majus
English Name:Tetterwort, Greater Celandine
German Name:Grosses Schöllkraut, Schellkraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:06.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:June to July
Notes:Notice image no. 3, which shows the toxic latex sap, leaking out of the latex vessels of the injured plant.
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Flower of Chelidonium majus
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 30.05.2008

sub classis:Caryophyllidae

ordo:Caryophyllales, formerly Centrospermae
Notes:Unique within the plants, most families of the Caryophyllales synthesize betalaines (betacyans and betaxanthines) instead of anthocyanes. These compounds absorb light at different wavelength and thus provide the primary pigmentation and coloration of the flowers in this group.
An exception to this is the family of the Caryophyllaceae which utilize anthocyanes as pigmentation compounds.

familia:Caryophyllaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Pink family
German name:Nelkengewächse
Notes:Members of the Caryophyllaceae synthesize anthocyanes as pigmentation compounds for their flowers, instead of the so-called betalaines, which are the characteristic pigmentation compounds of the order of the Caryophyllales

genus:Stellaria, L., 1753
English name:Stitchwort, Chickweed
German name:Sternmiere

species: Stellaria nemorum, L., 1753
Stellaria nemorum
English Name:Wood Stitchwort
German Name:Wald-Sternmiere, Hain-Sternmiere
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:06.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:
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Flower of Stellaria nemorum
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 06.05.2012

species: Stellaria holostea, L., 1753
Stellaria holostea
English Name:Addersmeat, Greater Stitchwort
German Name:Echte Sternmiere, Grosse Sternmiere
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:12.04.2014
Description:
Bloom:April to June
Notes:
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Flower of Stellaria holostea
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 12.04.2014

genus:Lychnis, L., 1753
English name:Campion, Catchfly
German name:Pechnelke

species: Lychnis flos-cuculi, L., 1753
Lychnis flos-cuculi
English Name:Ragged Robin
German Name:Kuckucks-Lichtnelke
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:11.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notes:
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Flower of Lychnis flos-cuculi
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 11.06.2013

genus:Silene, L., 1753
English name:Campion, Catchfly
German name:Leimkraut
Notes:Large genus containing more than 600 species.

species: Silene coronaria, (L.) Clairv., 1811
Silene coronaria
English Name:Rose Campion
German Name:Kronen-Lichtnelke, Vexiernelke
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:07.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notes:The plant shown is a 'half-wild' species, possibly escaped from cultivation in nearby gardens.
Personally, I observed that some bee species, possibly the solitary Osmia rufa, make use of the filthy hairs of this plants by biting off little pieces and collecting them with their legs. Such collected hair material might then be utilized for stuffing the bee's nests.
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Flower of Silene coronaria
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 07.08.2013

species: Silene dioica, (L.) Clairv., 1811
Silene dioica
English Name:Red Campion
German Name:Rote Lichtnelke, Rotes Leimkraut, Rote Nachtnelke, Rote Waldnelke, Taglichtnelke, Herrgottsblut
Location:Detmold, NRW, Germany
Date:21.06.2012
Description:
Bloom:April to August
Notes:
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Flower of Silene dioica
Detmold, NRW, Germany, 21.06.2012

genus:Dianthus, L., 1753
English name:Pink, Carnatus
German name:Nelke
Notes:The Dianthus genus contains of about 300 species, distributed mainly in Europe and Asia.
Most of the Dianthus species occuring in Germany are protected.

species: Dianthus armeria, L., 1753
Dianthus armeria
English Name:Deptford Pink, Grass Pink
German Name:Rauhe Nelke
Location:Nutscheid, NRW, Germany
Date:15.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to July
Notes:D. armeria is a protected species and categorized as endangered on the red list of NRW.
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Flower of Dianthus armeria
Nutscheid, NRW, Germany, 15.07.2014

species: Dianthus carthusianorum, L., 1753
Dianthus carthusianorum
English Name:Carthusian Pink
German Name:Karthäuser-Nelke
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:01.07.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:D. carthusianorum is a protected species and categorized as endangered on the red list of NRW.
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Flower of Dianthus carthusianorum
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 01.07.2015

species: Dianthus deltoides, L., 1753
Dianthus deltoides
English Name:Maiden Pink
German Name:Heide-Nelke
Location:Nutscheid, NRW, Germany
Date:25.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:D. deltoides is a protected species and categorized as endangered on the red list of NRW.
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Flower of Dianthus deltoides
Nutscheid, NRW, Germany, 25.06.2015

genus:Petrorhagia, (Ser.) Link, 1831
German name:Nelkenköpfchen, Felsennelke

species: Petrorhagia saxifraga, (L.) Link, 1831
Petrorhagia saxifraga
English Name:Tunic-Flower
German Name:Steinbrech-Felsennelke
Location:Nutscheid, NRW, Germany
Date:15.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Flower of Petrorhagia saxifraga
Nutscheid, NRW, Germany, 15.07.2014

ordo:Polygonales

familia:Polygonaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Buckwheat family, Knotweed family, Smartweed family
German name:Knöterichgewächse
Notes:Medium-sized family which comprises about 1200 species in 50 genera.
Species of this family are mainly characterized by their thickened knots (nodi) due to specially formed, stalk sheathing leaves (stipules) which are called ochrea.

genus:Polygonum, L., 1753
English name:Knotweed, Knotgrass, Bistort, Tearthumb, Mile-a-minute
German name:Vogelknöterich
Notes:

species: Polygonum aviculare, L., 1753
Polygonum aviculare
English Name:Common Knotweed, Birdweed, Pigweed, Lowgrass
German Name:Vogel-Knöterich
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:31.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:
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Flower of Polygonum aviculare
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 31.08.2013

species: Polygonum bistorta, L., 1753
Polygonum bistorta
English Name:Bistort, Common Bistort
German Name:Schlangenknöterich
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:18.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:The taxonomy of P. bistorta is quite disputed, the species can also be found as Bistorta officinalis and was recently re-classified as Persicaria bistorta.
Polygonum bistorta remains a valid synonym.
Note, that the plant shown is most probably a cultivated form; the plant is bigger and its general growth pattern appears more accentuated than its wild counterparts.
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Inflorescence of Polygonum bistorta
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 18.08.2013

species: Polygonum lapathifolium, L., 1753
Polygonum lapathifolium
English Name:Pale Persicaria
German Name:Ampfer-Knöterich
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to October
Notes:P. lapathifolium is quite polymorphous and many sub-species and varieties are described. The taxonomy is also quite disputed and the plant is currently recognized as Persicaria lapathifolia, while P. lapathifolium remains a valid synonym.
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Flower of Polygonum lapathifolium
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.08.2013

species: Polygonum persicaria, L., 1753
Polygonum persicaria
English Name:Redshank, Lady's Thumb, Persicaria
German Name:Floh-Knöterich, Pfirsichblättriger Knöterich
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:19.08.2013
Description:Annual, herbaceous plant with erect or prostrate (creeping) stalks, reaching heights of 40 to 80 cm, in rare cases the plants reaches only 5 cm or grows to heights of 120 cm. Growth can be branched or unbranched, the stalks are usually glabrous (naked) or pilose (with small hairs). The leaves are lance-shaped, entire and can expose irregular dark (black to brownish) spots on their surface. The leaves' underside is never floccose or tomentose (i.e. occupied with filthy hairs). The ochrea carries a fringe of hairs (usually two) on its top. The terminal, stalked inflorescences grow from branching points (axillary buds) and are cyclindrical panicles, from 10 to 60 mm long. The flowers are greenish to red, about 3 mm long and are equipped with small hairs at their edges. The lens-like, triangular fruits are 2-3 mm long and brownish-black when ripe.
P. persicaria is a ruderal plant with a circumpolar distribution and tends to grow in nitrogen-rich soil.
Bloom:July to September
Notes:In more recent taxonomies P. persicaria is re-classified as Persicaria maculosa, Gray, 1821, but Polygonum persicaria is still a valid synonym.
The leaves and the young shoots are edible and are used as a vegetable in some cuisines. Medicinal uses are also known.
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Flower of Polygonum persicaria
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 19.08.2013

sub classis:Hamamelididae

sub classis:Rosidae

ordo:Rosales

familia:Rosaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Rose family
German name:Rosengewächse

genus:Sanguisorba, L., 1753
English name:Burnet
German name:Wiesenknopf

species: Sanguisorba minor, Scop., 1753
Sanguisorba minor
English Name:Small Burnet, Salad Burnet, Garden Burnet, Burnet
German Name:Kleiner Wiesenknopf
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:01.07.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Sanguisorba minor
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 01.07.2015

genus:Potentilla, L., 1753
English name:Cinquefoil
German name:Fingerkraut

species: Potentilla anserina, L., 1753
Potentilla anserina
English Name:Common Silverweed, Silverweed Cinquefoil, "Silverweed"
German Name:Gänse-Fingerkraut, Anserine
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:30.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:The species is also known by the modern taxon Argentina anserina, but P. anserina is still a valid synonym.
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Flower of Potentilla anserina
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 30.05.2015

species: Potentilla erecta, (L.) Raeusch., 1797
Potentilla erecta
English Name:Common Tormentil, Erect Cinquefoil, Septfoil
German Name:Blutwurz, Aufrechtes Fingerkraut, Dilledapp, Durmentill, Natter(n)wurz, Rotwurz, Ruhrwurz, Siebenfinger, Tormentill
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:12.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:In some regions of Germany the roots of P. erecta are used to produce alcoholic beverages in form of a spirit, commonly called 'Blutwurz'.
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Flower of Potentilla erecta
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 12.07.2014

species: Potentilla reptans, L., 1753
Potentilla reptans
English Name:Creeping Tormentil, Creeping Cinquefoil, European Cinquefoil
German Name:Kriechendes Fingerkraut, Fünf-Fingerkraut
Location:Rheinberg, NRW, Germany
Date:13.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:
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Flower of Potentilla reptans
Rheinberg, NRW, Germany, 13.06.2015

species: Potentilla palustris, (L.) Scop., 1771
Potentilla palustris
English Name:Purple Marshlocks, Swamp Cinquefoil, Marsh Cinquefoil
German Name:Sumpf-Fingerkraut, Sumpf-Blutauge, Blutauge
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:09.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to July
Notes: Depending on the taxonomy referred to, P. palustris can be ordered within the genus Comarum, L. 1753 as Comarum palustre, L. 1753.
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Flower of Potentilla palustris
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 09.06.2015

ordo:Fabales

familia:Fabaceae, Lindl., 1836, also Leguminosae, formerly Papilionaceae
English name:Legume, Pea and Bean family
German name:Hülsenfrüchtler, Leguminosen, Schmetterlingsblütengewächse
Notes:The family of the Leguminosae contain many agronomically and commercially important species, like peas and beans, which are cultivated as food crops for humans and animals.
For biologists these plants are well renowned for their symbioses with microbes, the so-called Rhizobia. These bacteria enter the roots of Fabaceae species via special mechanisms and once entered, they are hosted within the root tissues of such plants. The Rhizobia are diazotrophic organisms, which means they are capable of fixing molecular nitrogen. Nitrogen is a valuable nutritional element and is needed by plants for proper growth, so the bacteria make nitrogen available for the hosting plant via special compounds. In exchange the hosting plant provides the bacteria with other nutritional compounds like carbohydrates or minerals.

genus:Trifolium, L., 1753
English name:Clover
German name:Klee

species: Trifolium pratense, L., 1753
Trifolium pratense
English Name:Red Clover
German Name:Rot-Klee, Wiesen-Klee
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:13.09.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Trifolium pratense
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 13.09.2013

species: Trifolium repens, L., 1753
Trifolium repens
English Name:White Clover, Dutch Clover
German Name:Weiss-Klee, Lämmer-Klee, Kriechender Klee
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:24.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Trifolium repens
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 24.06.2014

species: Trifolium montanum, L., 1753
Trifolium montanum
English Name:Mountain Clover
German Name:Berg-Klee
Location:Willebadessen, NRW, Germany
Date:20.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Trifolium montanum
Willebadessen, NRW, Germany, 20.06.2015

genus:Medicago, L., 1753
English name:Medick, Burclover
German name:Schneckenklee

species: Medicago lupulina, L., 1753
Medicago lupulina
English Name:Black Medic, Black Hay, Blackweed
German Name:Hopfen-Schneckenklee, Hopfen-Luzerne, Hopfen-Klee
Location:Schönenberg, NRW, Germany
Date:15.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to October
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Medicago lupulina
Schönenberg, NRW, Germany, 15.06.2014

genus:Ononis, L., 1753
English name:Restharrow
German name:Hauhechel

species: Ononis spinosa, L., 1753
Ononis spinosa
English Name:Spiny Restharrow
German Name:Dornige Hauhechel, Weiberkrieg, Eindorn
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:15.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:Note, that because of bastardiziation and difficulties in proper identification of this species, O. spinosa, together with O. repens and O. arvensis, is often classified in a taxonomic aggregation called O. spinosa agg.
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Flower of Ononis spinosa
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 15.06.2014

genus:Vicia, L., 1753
English name:Vetch
German name:Wicke

species: Vicia sepium, L., 1753
Vicia sepium
English Name:Bush Vetch
German Name:Zaun-Wicke
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:06.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Vicia sepium
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 06.07.2014

species: Vicia cracca, L., 1753
Vicia cracca
English Name:Bird Vetch, Tufted Vetch, Cow Vetch, Boreal Vetch
German Name:Vogel-Wicke
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:10.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Vicia cracca
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 10.07.2014

genus:Coronilla, L., 1753
English name:Crown Vetch
German name:Kronwicke

species: Coronilla varia, L., 1753
Coronilla varia
English Name:Crown Vetch, Purple Crown Vetch
German Name:Bunte Kronwicke
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Coronilla varia
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2014

ordo:Myrtales

familia:Lythraceae, J. St.-Hil., 1805
German name:Blutweiderichgewächse
Notes:The family Lythraceae comprises about 620 species in 31 genera with a worldwide distribution.
The flower petals often appear crumpled in the bud and wrinkled in the mature flower. Such a petal morphology serves as a distinctive characteristic for many species of this family.
Differing length of the stamens (called heterostyly) and/or the pistills in the flowers of different individual plants is also very common among species of the Lythraceae.

genus:Lythrum, L., 1753
English name:Loosestrife
German name:Weiderich, Blutweiderich
Notes:The English name 'loosestrife' of this genus is shared with the non-related genus Lysimachia.

species: Lythrum salicaria, L., 1753
Lythrum salicaria
English Name:Purple Loosestrife, Spiked Loosestrife
German Name:Blutweiderich, Gewöhnlicher Blutweiderich, Ähren-Weiderich
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:13.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Lythrum salicaria
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 13.07.2014

familia:Thymelaeaceae, Juss., 1789
German name:Seidelbastgewächse

genus:Daphne, L., 1753
German name:Seidelbast

species: Daphne mezereum, L., 1753
Daphne mezereum
English Name:February Daphne, Spurge Laurel, Spurge Olive, Mezereum, Mezereon
German Name:Gemeiner Seidelbast, Kellerhals
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:11.04.2015
Description:
Bloom:March to May
Notes:D. mezereum blooms before most of the leaves are produced and exhibits the phenomenon of cauliflory,
meaning that the flowers insert directly at the stem.
The plant is poisonous and contains the toxins mezerein and daphnin, so that ingestion and touching of the berries and leaves should be avoided.
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Flower of Daphne mezereum
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 11.04.2015

familia:Onagraceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Willowherb family, Evening Primrose family
German name:Nachtkerzengewächse

genus:Epilobium, L., 1753
English name:Willowherb
German name:Weidenröschen
Notes:Many species of Epilobium are capable of cross fertiliziation and form hybrid plants, so that proper species identification is rendered difficult in many cases.

species: Epilobium angustifolium, L., 1753
Epilobium angustifolium
English Name:Fireweed, Rosebay Willowherb
German Name:Stauden-Feuerkraut, Schmalblättriges Weidenröschen, Wald-Weidenröschen
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:16.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Epilobium angustifolium
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 16.08.2013

species: Epilobium hirsutum, L., 1753
Epilobium hirsutum
English Name:Great Willowherb, Great Hairy Willowherb, Hairy Willowherb, Codlins-and-Cream
German Name:Rauhhaariges Weidenröschen, Zottiges Weidenröschen
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notes:
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Flower of Epilobium hirsutum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.08.2013

genus:Circaea, L., 1753
English name:Enchanter's Nightshade
German name:Hexenkraut

species: Circaea lutetiana, L., 1753
Circaea lutetiana
English Name:Enchanter's Nightshade
German Name:Grosses Hexenkraut, Gemeines Hexenkraut
Location:Waldbröl, NRW, Germany
Date:16.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Circaea lutetiana
Waldbröl, NRW, Germany, 16.07.2014

ordo:Celastrales

familia:Celastraceae, R. Br., 1814
English name:Bittersweet family, Staff Vine family
German name:Spindelbaumgewächse

genus:Euonymus, L., 1753
English name:Spindle
German name:Spindelstrauch, Pfaffenhütchen

species: Euonymus europaea, L., 1753
Euonymus europaea
English Name:European Spindle, Common Spindle
German Name:Europäisches Pfaffenhütchen
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notes:
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Unripe fruits of Euonymus europaea
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.08.2013

familia:Aquifoliaceae, Bercht. & J. Presl., 1825
German name:Stechpalmengewächse
Notes:Monotypic family, containing only the genus Ilex which comprises about 400 to 600 species distributed throughout temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions.

genus:Ilex, L., 1753
English name:Holly
German name:Stechpalme

species: Ilex aquifolium, L., 1753
Ilex aquifolium
English Name:Holly, European Holly, Common Holly, English Holly, Christmas Holly
German Name:Gewöhnliche Stechpalme, Stechhülse
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:11.05.2015
Description:Dioecious plant with female and male flowers on different plants.
Bloom:May to June
Notes:I. aquifolium is the only species of the Ilex genus occuring in Europe.
The ingestion of the red drupes (usually referred to as berries) should be avoided, as they are very bitter and contain emetic compounds, like ilicin.
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Male flowers of Ilex aquifolium
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 11.05.2015

ordo:Polygalales

familia:Polygalaceae, Hoffmanns. & Link, 1809
English name:Milkwort family
German name:Kreuzblumengewächse

genus:Polygala, L., 1753
English name:Milkwort, Snakeroot
German name:Kreuzblume

species: Polygala vulgaris, L., 1753
Polygala vulgaris
English Name:Common Milkwort
German Name:Gemeine Kreuzblume, Gemeines Kreuzblümchen, Wiesen-Kreuzblume
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:Contains saponins. Several sub-species of P. vulgaris are recognized, which are all recognized as rare in NRW and appear on the red-list in the category of endangered species.
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Flower of Polygala vulgaris
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2014

species: Polygala comosa, Schkuhr, 1796
Polygala comosa
English Name:Tufted Milkwort
German Name:Schopfiges Kreuzblümchen
Location:Willebadessen, NRW, Germany
Date:21.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:P. comosa is a rare plant in NRW and appears on the red-list in the category of endangered species.
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Inflorescence of Polygala comosa
Willebadessen, NRW, Germany, 21.05.2015

ordo:Geraniales

familia:Oxalidaceae, R. Br., 1818
English name:Oxalis or Wood-sorrel family
German name:Sauerkleegewächse

genus:Oxalis, L., 1753
English name:Wood Sorrel
German name:Sauerklee
Notes:All species of Oxalis contain oxalic acid

species: Oxalis acetosella, L., 1753
Oxalis acetosella
English Name:Common Wood Sorrel
German Name:Wald-Sauerklee
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:03.04.2012
Description:
Bloom:April to May
Notes:O. acetosella does not need much light and can grow in shady places like forest floors. This species produces open (chasmogamous) and closed (cleistogamous) flowers on the same plant and is thus capable of allogamous and autogamous fertilisation.
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Habitus of Oxalis acetosella
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 03.04.2012

familia:Geraniaceae, Juss., 1789
German name:Storchschnabelgewächse

genus:Geranium, L., 1753
English name:Cranesbill
German name:Storchschnabel, Geranie

species: Geranium robertianum, L., 1753
Geranium robertianum
English Names:Herb Robert, Red Robin, Death come quickly, Storksbill, Dove's Foot
German Name:Ruprechts-Storchschnabel, Stinkender Storcheschnabel, Ruprechtskraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:07.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:
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Flower of Geranium robertianum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 07.05.2012

species: Geranium dissectum, L., 1755
Geranium dissectum
English Name:Cut-leaved Cranesbill
German Name:Schlitzblättriger Storchschnabel, Schlitz-Storchschnabel
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to October
Notes:
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Flower of Geranium dissectum
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2014

genus:Erodium, L'Hér., 1789
English name:Storksbill
German name:Reiherschnabel

species: Erodium cicutarium, (L.) L'Hér. ex Aiton, 1789
Erodium cicutarium
English Names:Redstem Stork's Bill, Redstem Filaree, Common Stork's-Bill, Pinweed
German Name:Gewöhnlicher Reiherschnabel, Schierlingsblättriger Reiherschnabel
Location:Köln Deutz, NRW, Germany
Date:02.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:April to October
Notes:
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Flower of Erodium cicutarium
Köln Deutz, NRW, Germany, 02.05.2015

familia:Balsaminaceae, A. Rich., 1822
German name:Balsaminengewächse

genus:Impatiens, L., 1753
English name:Impatiens, Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, Snapweed
German name:Springkraut

species: Impatiens noli-tangere, L., 1753
Impatiens noli-tangere
English Name:Touch-me-not Balsam
German Name:Echtes Springkraut, Rühr-mich-nicht-an
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:03.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notes:
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Flower of Impatiens noli-tangere
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 03.08.2013

species: Impatiens parviflora, DC., 1824
Impatiens parviflora
English Name:Small Balsam, Small-Flowered Touch-me-not
German Name:Kleinblütiges Springkraut, Kleines Springkraut, Sibirisches Springkraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:03.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:I. parviflora is native to regions of inner Asia (Tadschikistan, Kashmir) and was introduced to Europe quite recently (neophyt). In Germany it is assumed that this species had escaped the Botanical Garden in Berlin in 1837.
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Flower of Impatiens parviflora
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 03.08.2013

species: Impatiens glandulifera, Royle, 1834
Impatiens glandulifera
English Name:Policeman's Helmet, Bobby Tops, Copper Tops, Gnome's Hatstand, Himalayan Balsam, Kiss-me-on-the-mountain
German Name:Drüsiges Springkraut, Indisches Springkraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notes:I. glandulifera is native to the regions of the Himalaya and was introduced to England in 1839. Since then it has spread all over the UK and subsequently conquered the European mainland, where it now is found in many habitats, often regarded as invasive or even noxious weed. It has also found its way to North America, where the plant is officially recognized as invasive species.
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Flower of Impatiens glandulifera
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.08.2013

sub classis:Dilleniidae

ordo:Theales, formerly Guttiferales

familia:Hypericaceae, Juss., 1789
German name:Johanniskrautgewächse, Hartheugewächse

genus:Hypericum, L., 1753
English name:St. John's Wort, Hypericum, Tutsan
German name:Johanniskraut, Hartheu
Notes:Several quite similar species of Hypericum are known to occur in Germany.
In the field most of them can be distinguished by the forms of their stem, which can be creeping and round (H. elodes), creeping with 2 ridges (H. humifusum), square in cross-section and winged (H. tetrapterum), weakly square in cross-section but with four marked ridges (H. maculatum), round and hairy (H. hirsutum), round without hairs (H. montanum), round at the base and tapering towards two ridges (H. elegans) or with two marked ridges (H. perforatum)

species: Hypericum perforatum, L., 1753
Hypericum perforatum
English Name:Common St. John's-Wort, Perforate St John's-Wort, Tipton's Weed, Klamath Weed
German Name:Johanniskraut, Tüpfel-Hartheu
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:28.07.2012
Description:
Bloom:April to May
Notes:H. perforatum is an old medicinal plant and was traditionally used to cure various ailments. From this species several sub-species are recognized; the one shown here is most probably H. perforatum spp. perforatum
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Flower of Hypericum perforatum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 28.07.2013

species: Hypericum hirsutum, L., 1753
Hypericum hirsutum
English Name:Hairy St. John's Wort
German Name:Rauhes Johanniskraut, Behaartes Johanniskraut
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:15.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Flower of Hypericum hirsutum
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 15.06.2014

species: Hypericum pulchrum, L., 1753
Hypericum pulchrum
English Name:Slender St. John's Wort
German Name:Schönes Johanniskraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:03.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notes:
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Flower of Hypericum pulchrum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 03.07.2014

species: Hypericum humifusum, L., 1753
Hypericum humifusum
English Name:Trailing St. John's Wort
German Name:Niederliegendes Johanniskraut, Niederliegendes Hartheu
Location:Reichshof, NRW, Germany
Date:12.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Flower of Hypericum humifusum
Reichshof, NRW, Germany, 12.07.2014

ordo:Violales

familia:Violaceae, Batsch, 1802
English name:Violet family
German name:Veilchengewächse
Notes:Medium sized family with about 800 known species in 21 genera. Most of the known species are contained within the genus Viola.

genus:Viola, L., 1753
English name:Violet
German name:Veilchen, Stiefmütterchen
Notes:Largest genus within the Violaceae family with about 500 to 600 species, mostly occurring in the temperate regions of the holarctic.

species: * Viola reichenbachiana, Jord. ex Boreau, 1857
Viola reichenbachiana
English Name:Early Dog-Violet
German Name:Wald-Veilchen
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:06.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:April to May
Notes:formerly Viola sylvestris, Jean Baptiste A.P. Marquis de Lamarck emendavit H.G.L. Reichenbach
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Flower of Viola reichenbachiana
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 06.05.2012

ordo:Capparales

familia:Brassicaceae, Burnett, 1835, formerly Cruciferae
English name:Mustard family, Cabbage family, Crucifers
German name:Kreuzblütlergewächse
Notes:Agronomically and hence economically important group, which contains many species cultivated as food crops, like rapeseed (Brassica napus) or
cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli (all variations of Brassica oleracea).

genus:Alliaria, Heist. ex Fabr., 1759

species: Alliaria petiolata, (M. Bieb.), Cavara & Grande, 1913
Alliaria petiolata
English Name:Garlic mustard. Other common names include Garlic Root, Hedge Garlic, Sauce-alone, Jack-in-the-bush, Jack-by-the-hedge, Penny Hedge and Poor Man's Mustard.
German Name:Knoblauchsrauke, Gemeines Lauchkraut, Knoblauchskraut, Knoblauchhederich
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:13.05.2011
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:A. petiolata has an intensive garlic-like smell, especially when grinded. The scent producing compound is probably similar to the garlic substance allicine.
The species is edible and especially young leaves, but also flowers and seeds can be used in salads or as seasoning.
The plant is regarded as an invasive alien species (IAS) in larger parts of North America and listed as noxious or restricted plant in several states of the USA.
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Inflorescence of Alliaria petiolata
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 13.05.2011

genus:Cardamine, L., 1753
English name:Bittercress
German name:Schaumkraut

species: Cardamine pratensis, L., 1753
Cardamine pratensis
English Name:Cuckoo Flower, Lady's Smock, Meadow Cress
German Name:Wiesen-Schaumkraut
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:03.04.2012
Description:
Bloom:April to May
Notes:
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Flower of Cardamine pratensis
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 03.04.2012

ordo:Malvales

familia:Malvaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Mallow family
German name:Malvengewächse

genus:Malva, L., 1753
English name:Mallow
German name:Malve

species: Malva moschata, L., 1753
Malva moschata
English Name:Musk-Mallow
German Name:Moschus-Malve
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:14.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Flower of Malva moschata
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 14.08.2013

ordo:Ericales

familia:Ericaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Heather family
German name:Heidekrautgewächse
Notes:Simple, evergreen leaves without petioles.
Important and large family with more than 4000 species and a nearly worldwide distribution.
Members of the Ericaceae are tolerant of acidic and infertile soils,
thus often forming a characteristic vegetation (e.g. heathland) on such grounds.
Most species live in symbiosis with soil fungi (mycorrhiza).

genus:Calluna, Salisb., 1759
German name:Heidekraut, Besenheide
Notes:Monotypic genus with only one species: Calluna vulgaris

species: Calluna vulgaris, (L.) Hull, 1808
Calluna vulgaris
English Name:Common Heather, Heather, Ling
German Name:Gemeine Besenheide
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to November
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Calluna vulgaris
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 24.08.2014

genus:Erica, L., 1753
English name:Heath, Heather
German name:Heide

species: Erica tetralix, L., 1753
Erica tetralix
English Name:Cross-leaved Heath
German Name:Glockenheide
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:13.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Erica tetralix
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 13.07.2014

ordo:Primulales

familia:Primulaceae, Batsch ex Borkh., 1797
English name:Primrose family
German name:Primelgewächse

genus:Primula, L., 1753
English name:Primrose
German name:Primel, Schlüsselblume
Notes:Most species of Primula are protected within Germany.

species: Primula elatior, (L.) Hill, 1765
Primula elatior
English Name:Oxlip
German Name:Wald-Schlüsselblume, Hohe Primel
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:23.03.2014
Description:
Bloom:March to May
Notes:P. elatior is a protected species and contains, especially within the roots, saponins and is a traditional medicinal plant.
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Flower of Primula elatior
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 23.03.2014

species: Primula veris, L., 1753
Primula veris
English Name:Oxlip
German Name:Echte Schlüsselblume, Wiesen-Schlüsselblume, Wiesen-Primel, Duftende Schlüsselblume
Location:Brilon, NRW, Germany
Date:21.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:March to June
Notes:P. veris is a protected species and contains, especially within the roots, saponins and is a traditional medicinal plant.
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Inflorescence of Primula veris
Brilon, NRW, Germany, 21.05.2015

genus:Lysimachia, L., 1753
German name:Gilbweiderich

species: Lysimachia vulgaris, L., 1753
Lysimachia vulgaris
English Name:Garden Loosestrife, Yellow Loosestrife
German Name:Gemeiner Gilbweiderich, Gemeiner Felberich
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:06.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Flower of Lysimachia vulgaris
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 06.07.2014

species: Lysimachia nemorum, L., 1753
Lysimachia nemorum
English Name:Yellow Pimpernel
German Name:Hain-Gilbweiderich
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:11.05.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:
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Flower of Lysimachia nemorum
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 23.03.2014

genus:Anagallis, L., 1753
English name:Pimpernel
German name:Gauchheil

species: Anagallis arvensis, L., 1753
Anagallis arvensis
English Name:Pimpernel, Scarlet Pimpernel
German Name:Roter Gauchheil, Acker-Gauchheil, Nebelpflanze, Weinbergsstern, Wetterkraut
Location:Bonn, NRW, Germany
Date:27.06.2011
Description:
Bloom:July to October
Notes:A. arvensis contains saponins and is regarded as weakly poisonous. Several color variations are recognized: forma arvensis with red petals, forma carnea with flesh-colored petals, forma lilacina with a violet flower, forma pallida with white petals and forma azurea with blue petals. Thus, the flower depicted here appears to be of forma arvensis
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Flower of Anagallis arvensis
Bonn, NRW, Germany, 27.06.2011

genus:Trientalis, L., 1753
English name:Starflower, Wintergreen
German name:Siebenstern

species: Trientalis europaea, L., 1753
Trientalis europaea
English Name:Chickweed-Wintergreen, Arctic Starflower
German Name:Europäischer Siebenstern
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:12.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:
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Flower of Trientalis europaea
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 12.05.2015

sub classis:Asteridae
English name:Asterids
German name:Asterngewächse

ordo:Gentianales

familia:Gentianaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Gentian family
German name:Enziangewächse

genus:Centaurium, Hill, 1756
English name:Centaury
German name:Tausengüldenkraut

species: Centaurium erythraea, Rafn, 1800
Centaurium erythraea
English Name:Common Centaury, European Centaury
German Name:Echtes Tausengüldenkraut
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notes:
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Flower of Centaurium erythraea
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2014

ordo:Solanales

familia:Solanaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Nightshade family
German name:Nachtschattengewächse

genus:Atropa, L., 1753
German name:Tollkirsche

species: Atropa belladonna, L., 1753
Atropa belladonna
English Name:Deadly Nightshade, Belladonna
German Name:Schwarze Tollkirsche
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:15.06.2014
Description:Perennial, herbaceous plant growing up to 1.5 m tall, often exhibiting a shrub-like habitus.
Bloom:June to August
Notes:The plant and especially its berries contain the toxic alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine and A. belladonna must therefore be regarded as deadly poisonous.
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Flower of Atropa belladonna
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 15.06.2014

genus:Solanum, L., 1753
German name:Nachtschatten

species: Solanum dulcamara, L., 1753
Solanum dulcamara
English Name:European Bittersweet, Nightshade
German Name:Bittersüsser Nachtschatten, Bittersüss, Hirschkraut, Seidelbeere, Saurebe
Location:Reichshof, NRW, Germany
Date:22.05.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:S. dulcamara contains the toxic compound solanine, especially in the unripe fruits and the leaves
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Flower of Solanum dulcamara
Reichshof, NRW, Germany, 22.05.2014

species: Solanum nigrum, L., 1753
Solanum nigrum
English Name:European Black Nightshade, Duscle, Garden Nightshade, Hound's Berry, Petty Morel, Wonder Berry
German Name:Schwarzer Nachtschatten
Location:Köln Deutz, NRW, Germany
Date:24.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:S. nigrum contains the toxic compound solanine, especially in the unripe fruits.
Special strains of this plant are utilized as food in several cuisines.
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Flower of Solanum nigrum
Köln Deutz, NRW, Germany, 24.07.2014

familia:Convolvulaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Bindweed family
German name:Windengewächse

genus:Calystegia, R. Br., 1810
English name:Bindweed, False Bindweed, Morning Glory
German name:Zaunwinde

species: Calystegia sepium, (L.) R. Br., 1810
Calystegia sepium
English Name:Large Bindweed, Hedge Bindweed, Bearbind, Hedgebell
German Name:Echte Zaunwinde
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:19.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to June
Notes:
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Flower of Calystegia sepium
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 19.08.2013

ordo:Lamiales

familia:Boraginaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Borage family, Forget-Me-Not family
German name:Rauhblattgewächse
Notes:This quite large family comprises about 2000 species in 146 genera.

genus:Borago, L., 1753
English name:Borage
German name:Borretsch

species: Borago officinalis, L., 1753
Borago officinalis
English Name:Borage, Starflower
German Name:Borretsch
Location:Herrenstrunden, NRW, Germany
Date:04.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:The flowers of B. officinalis are protandrous, i.e. the stamens of the flower are fertile before the pistill, a mechanism thought to prevent self-fertilization. On the other hand flowers on a single cyme bloom quite simultanously, leading to a so-called gaitonogamous effect (cross-pollination of flowers of the same plant). Seeds of Borage are equipped with protein-rich appendages (elaiosomes), facilitating their dispersal by ants (myrmecochory).
B. officinalis is originally native to the Mediterran region, but was already cultivated in Middle Europe during the Mideval (archaeophyt).
The plant is utilized as a vegetable and medicinal herb.
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Flower of Borago officinalis
Herrenstrunden, NRW, Germany, 04.08.2013

genus:Symphytum, L., 1753
English name:Comfrey
German name:Beinwell

species: Symphytum officinale, L., 1753
Symphytum officinale
English Name:Common Comfrey
German Name:Gemeiner Beinwell
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:13.05.2011
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:Cultivars of Common Comfrey are used as fertilizer or as herbal medicine.
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Inflorescence of Symphytum officinale
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 13.05.2011

genus:Echium, L., 1753
German name:Natternkopf

species: Echium vulgare, L., 1753
Echium vulgare
English Name:Viper's Bugloss, Blueweed
German Name:Blauer Natternkopf, Gewöhnlicher Natternkopf
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:19.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Flower of Echium vulgare
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 19.08.2013

genus:Pulmonaria, L., 1753
English name:Lungwort
German name:Lungenkraut

species: Pulmonaria officinalis, L., 1753
Pulmonaria officinalis
English Name:Common Lungwort
German Name:Echtes Lungenkraut, Gebräuchliches Lungenkraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:07.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:March to May
Notes:
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Habitus of Pulmonaria officinalis
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 07.05.2012

familia:Lamiaceae, Martinov, 1820, also Labiatae, Juss., 1789
English name:Mint family
German name:Lippenblütler
Notes:Zygomorphous (bilaterally symmetrical) flowers, stems or stalks are most often square (four-sided, four-angled) in cross-section.
Most members of this family contain essential oils and for that reason many species are utilized as cooking ingredients or in herbal medicine.

genus:Lamium, L., 1753, includes Lamiastrum, Heist. ex Fabr., 1759
English name:Deadnettle
German name:Taubnessel, Bienensaug

species: Lamium album, (L.), L., 1759
Lamium album
English Name:White Nettle, White Dead-Nettle
German Name:Weisse Taubnessel
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:19.08.2013
Description:Perennial, herbaceous plant, growing from 15 to 100 cm tall.
Bloom:April to July
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Lamium album
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 19.08.2013

species: Lamium galeobdolon, (L.), L., 1759
Lamium galeobdolon
English Name:Yellow Archangel
German Name:Goldnessel, Gold-Taubnessel
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:06.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Lamium galeobdolon
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 06.05.2012

genus:Stachys, L., 1753
German name:Ziest

species: Stachys palustris, L., 1753
Stachys palustris
English Name:Marsh Woundwort, Marsh Hedge-Nettle
German Name:Sumpf-Ziest, Schweinsrübe
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Stachys palustris
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.08.2013

species: Stachys sylvatica, L., 1753
Stachys sylvatica
English Name:Hedge Woundwort, Hedge Nettle
German Name:Wald-Ziest, Waldnessel
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:13.09.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Flower of Stachys sylvatica
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 13.09.2013

species: Stachys officinalis, (L.) Trevis., 1842
Stachys officinalis
English Name:Betony, Purple Betony, Wood Betony, Bishop's Wort
German Name:Echte Betonie, Rote Betonie, Batunge, Heil-Batunge, Echter Ziest, Heil-Ziest, Flohblume, Pfaffenblume, Zahnkraut, Zehrkraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:17.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:S. offcinalis is also recognized as Betonica officinalis, L., 1753, which is a valid synonym.
The plant is known to herbal medicine since ancient times and is used to cure various ailments.
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Inflorescence of Stachys officinalis
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 17.07.2014

genus:Glechoma, L., 1753
German name:Gundermann

species: Glechoma hederacea, L., 1753
Glechoma hederacea
English Name:Ground-ivy, Gill-over-the-ground, Creeping Charlie
German Name:Efeu-Gundermann, Gundelrebe
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:06.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:March to May
Notes:G. hederacea is edible, and can for example be used in salads.
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Flowers of Glechoma hederacea
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 06.05.2012

genus:Ajuga, L., 1753
English name:Bugle, Bugleweed, Ground Pine, Carpet Bugle
German name:Günsel

species: Ajuga reptans, L., 1753
Ajuga reptans
English Name:Blue Bugle, Bugleherb, Bugleweed, Carpetweed, Carpet Bungleweed, Common Bugle, Burgundy Lace
German Name:Kriechender Günsel
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:06.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Ajuga reptans
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 06.05.2012

genus:Prunella, L., 1753
English name:Self-Heal
German name:Braunelle

species: Prunella vulgaris, L., 1753
Prunella vulgaris
English Name:Common Self-Heal, Heal-All
German Name:Kleine Braunelle, Gemeine Braunelle
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:14.10.2010
Description:
Bloom:May to October
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Prunella vulgaris
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 14.10.2010

species: Prunella grandiflora, (L.) Scholl., 1775
Prunella grandiflora
English Name:Large Self-Heal
German Name:Grossblütige Braunelle, Grosse Braunelle
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:01.07.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Prunella grandiflora
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 01.07.2015

genus:Teucrium, L., 1753
English name:Germander
German name:Gamander

species: Teucrium scorodonia, L., 1753
Teucrium scorodonia
English Name:Wood Sage, Woodland Germander
German Name:Salbei-Gamander
Location:Nümbrecht
Date:03.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notes:
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Flower of Teucrium scorodonia
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 03.07.2014

ordo:Plantaginales

familia:Plantaginaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Plantain family
German name:Wegerichgewächse

genus:Plantago, L., 1753
English name:Plantain
German name:Wegerich

species: Plantago lanceolata, L., 1753
Plantago lanceolata
English Name:Ribwort Plantain, English Plantain, Buckhorn Plantain, Narrowleaf Plantain, Ribleaf, Lamb's Tongue
German Name:Spitz-Wegerich, Spiesskraut, Lungenblatt, Schlangenzunge
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Plantago lanceolata
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.08.2013

species: Plantago major, L., 1753
Plantago major
English Name:Broadleaf Plantain, Greater Plantain
German Name:Grosser Wegerich, Breitwegerich
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:Especially the young leaves of P. major are edible and can be used as a vegetable or in salads. Also several medicinal uses are described, due to its content of various bioactive compounds, like allantoin, aucubin, flavonoids and others. Poultices might be applied to support healing of wounds, stings or sores. Tea from the leaves could be used to cure diarrhea and dysentry.
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Inflorescence of Plantago major
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.08.2013

ordo:Scrophulariales

familia:Scrophulariaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Figwort family
German name:Braunwurzgewächse, Rachenblütler

genus:Digitalis, L., 1753
English name:Foxglove
German name:Fingerhut
Notes:According to newer taxonomies the genus Digitalis is now placed within the family of the Plantaginaceae.
Many species of the Digitalis genus contain characteristic toxic glycosides, e.g. digoxin and digitoxin.
Some of these compounds are used as pharmaceuticals against heart failure.

species: Digitalis purpurea, L., 1753
Digitalis purpurea
English Name:Common Foxglove
German Name:Roter Fingerhut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:19.06.2008
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:D. purpurea is regarded as an Atlantic floral element, although it is widely distributed and quite omnipresent in Middle Europe.
Notice the peculiar appearance of the closed flowers on images no. 2 and 3.
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Flower of Digitalis purpurea
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 19.06.2008

genus:Euphrasia, L., 1753
English name:Eyebright
German name:Augentrost
Notes:Mostly semi-parasitic plants. Not at least because of its parasitic nature the genus Euphrasia is placed within the family of the Orobanchaceae in newer taxonomies. The taxonomy of species within the Euphrasia genus is quite disputed as many subspecies and ecological variations are known and hybridization between related species frequently occurs.

species: * Euphrasia stricta, J.P.Wolff ex J.F.Lehm., 1809
Euphrasia stricta
English Name:Drug Eyebright
German Name:Aufrechter Augentrost, Steifer Augentrost
Location:Waldbröl, NRW, Germany
Date:15.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:The species depicted was identified as E. stricta because of its serrated leaves, whereas the edges of the leaves of the quite similiar E. rostkoviana (synonym E. officinalis) are toothed.
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Flower of Euphrasia stricta
Waldbröl, NRW, Germany, 15.07.2014

genus:Rhinanthus, L., 1753
English name:Rattle
German name:Klappertopf
Notes:Mostly semi-parasitic plants. Not at least because of its parasitic nature the genus Rhinanthus is placed within the family of the Orobanchaceae in newer taxonomies.

species: Rhinanthus minor, L., 1756
Rhinanthus minor
English Name:Yellow Rattle, Cockscomb
German Name:Kleiner Klappertopf
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:22.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Rhinanthus minor
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 22.06.2014

genus:Linaria, Mill., 1754
English name:Toadflax
German name:Leinkraut
Notes:According to newer taxonomies the genus Linaria is now placed within the family of the Plantaginaceae.

species: Linaria vulgaris, Mill., 1768
Linaria vulgaris
English Name:Common Toadflax, Yellow Toadflax, Butter-and-Eggs
German Name:Gemeines Leinkraut, Frauenflachs, Kleines Löwenmaul
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Linaria vulgaris
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.08.2013

genus:Verbascum, L., 1753
English name:Mullein, Velvet Plant
German name:Königskerze

species: Verbascum nigrum, L., 1753
Verbascum nigrum
English Name:Dark Mullein
German Name:Schwarze Königskerze
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:27.08.2011
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notes:
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Flower of Verbascum nigrum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 27.08.2011

familia:Globulariaceae
German name:Kugelblumengewächse
Notes:The status of the Globulariaceae family seems to be disputed: In the Cronquist system the family is placed within the order of the Scrophulariales, in more recent taxonomies the family is deprecated and the appertaining species are ranked within the family of the Plantaginaceae.

genus:Globularia, L., 1753
English name:Globularia, Globe Daisy
German name:Kugelblume
Notes:Based on phylogenetic comparisons the genus Globularia is now placed within the family of the Plantaginaceae in the order of the Plantaginales.

species: Globularia bisnagarica, L., 1753
Globularia bisnagarica
English Name:Common Ball Flower
German Name:Gemeine Kugelblume, Echte Kugelblume, Gewöhnliche Kugelblume, Hochstielige Kugelblume
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:01.07.2015
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notes:An often encountered valid synonym of G. bisnargarica is G. punctata.
G. bisnagarica is poisonous.
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Inflorescence of Globularia bisnagarica
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 01.07.2015

familia:Orobanchaceae, Vent., 1799
English name:Broomrape family
German name:Sommerwurzgewächse
Notes:The Orobanchaceae are now considered a member of the order of Lamiales within the unranked group of the Asterids.
Apart from a few exceptions the Orobanchaceae comprises parasitic plants, which are fully (holoparasitic) or partly (semiparasitic) dependent on the roots of other plants.
Especially the holoparasitic species occur therefore as non-green plants, as they lack chlorophyll and cannot utilize photosynthesis.
The nutrients are derived from a special organ termed haustorium, which is formed by the roots of the parasites and attaches to the roots of the nearby host plants.
Thus, most species of the Orobanchaceae, like many other parasites, are characterized by their host organisms.

genus:Orobanche, L., 1753
English name:Broomrape
German name:Sommerwurz
Notes:Holoparasitic plants, whereby some species are restricted to parasitize on a single host, while others are capable to thrive on the roots of different host plants.

species: Orobanche hederae, Duby, 1828
Orobanche hederae
English Name:Ivy Broomrape
German Name:Efeu-Sommerwurz
Location:Bonn, NRW, Germany
Date:07.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:O. hederae is strictly dependent on ivy (Hedera helix)
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Flower of Orobanche hederae
Bonn, NRW, Germany, 07.06.2013

ordo:Campanulales

familia:Campanulaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Bellflower family
German name:Glockenblumengewächse

genus:Campanula, L., 1753
English name:Bellflowers
German name:Glockenblumen

species: Campanula patula, L., 1753
Campanula patula
English Name:Spreading Bellflower
German Name:Wiesen-Glockenblume
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:21.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:
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Flower of Campanula patula
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 21.07.2014

species: Campanula rotundifolia, L., 1753
Campanula rotundifolia
English Name:Harebell, Bluebell
German Name:Rundblättrige Glockenblume
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:12.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Flower of Campanula rotundifolia
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 12.07.2014

species: Campanula persicifolia, L., 1753
Campanula persicifolia
English Name:Peach-Leaved Bellflower
German Name:Pfirsichblättrige Glockenblume
Location:Beverungen, NRW, Germany
Date:20.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Flower of Campanula persicifolia
Beverungen, NRW, Germany, 20.06.2015

species: Campanula rapunculoides, L., 1753
Campanula rapunculoides
English Name:Creeping Bellflower, Rampion Bellflower
German Name:Acker-Glockenblume
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:01.07.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Flower of Campanula rapunculoides
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 01.07.2015

species: Campanula trachelium, L., 1753
Campanula trachelium
English Name:Nettle-Leaved Bellflower
German Name:Nesselblättrige Glockenblume
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:19.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notes:
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Flower of Campanula trachelium
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 19.08.2013

species: Campanula glomerata, L., 1753
Campanula glomerata
English Name:Clustered Bellflower, Dane's blood
German Name:Knäuel-Glockenblume, Büschel-Glockenblume, Geknäuelte Glockenblume
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:01.07.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Campanula glomerata
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 01.07.2015

genus:Phyteuma, L., 1753
English name:Rampion
German name:Teufelskralle

species: Phyteuma nigrum, F. W. Schmidt, 1793
Phyteuma nigrum
English Name:Black Rampion
German Name:Schwarze Teufelskralle, Schwarze Rapunzel
Location:Bad Driburg, NRW, Germany
Date:21.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Phyteuma nigrum
Bad Driburg, NRW, Germany, 21.05.2015

species: Phyteuma orbiculare, F. W. Schmidt, 1793
Phyteuma orbiculare
English Name:Black Rampion
German Name:Kugelige Teufelskralle, Kopfige Teufelskralle, Kugelköpfige Rapunzel
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Phyteuma orbiculare
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2015

species: Phyteuma spicatum, L., 1753
Phyteuma spicatum
English Name:Spiked Rampion
German Name:Ährige Teufelskralle, Ährige Rapunzel
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:10.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:Note the different state of development in the inflorescences of the images no. 2 and no. 3,
which were shot at the same location and on the same day, but a year apart.
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Inflorescence of Phyteuma spicatum
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 10.06.2013

ordo:Dipsacales

familia:Caprifoliaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Honeysuckle family
German name:Geissblattgewächse

genus:Lonicera, L., 1753
English name:Honeysuckle
German name:Heckenkirsche, Geissblatt

species: Lonicera periclymenum, L., 1753
Lonicera periclymenum
English Name:Common Honeysuckle, European Honeysuckle, Woodbine
German Name:Deutsches Geissblatt
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:14.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Flower of Lonicera periclymenum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 14.08.2013

familia:Dipsacaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Teasel family
German name:Kardengewächse
Notes:According to newer taxonomic schemes, most of the species in the Dipsacaceae family are now placed within the Caprifoliaceae

genus:Knautia, L., 1753
English name:Widow Flower, Scabious
German name:Witwenblume

species: Knautia arvensis, (L.) Coult.
Knautia arvensis
English Name:Meadow Widow Flower, Field Scabious
German Name:Acker-Witwenblume, Acker-Skabiose
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:06.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notes:
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Flower of Knautia arvensis
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 06.07.2014

genus:Scabiosa, L., 1753
English name:Scabious
German name:Skabiose, Grindkraut

species: Scabiosa columbaria, L., 1753
Scabiosa columbaria
English Name:Pigeon Scabious, Pincushion Flower, Small Scabious, Dove Pincushion
German Name:Tauben-Skabiose, Tauben-Grindkraut
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:
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Flower of Scabiosa columbaria
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2014

ordo:Asterales

familia:Asteraceae, Bercht. & J. Presl., 1820, formerly Compositae
English name:Aster, Daisy or Sunflower family
German name:Köpfchen- oder Körbchenblütler
Notes:The Asteraceae family is, beside the Orchidaceae, the largest family of all plants, comprising of more than 21,000, or according to other accounts, of more than 23,000 species.
The group is chiefly characterized by its composite flowers, an anatomical property which was used to justify the family's former name Compositae.
Composite flowers appear to the eye as a single flower, but consist indeed of an inflorescence composed of many smaller flowers, which are called florets.
An unit or cluster of florets which make up an inflorescence and appear as a single flower is also referred to as a head.
All florets of a head insert on a protruded and vaulted elongation of the stalk which is called a receptacle.
In botanical terms such composite flowers are also called a pseudanthium, meaning "pseudo-flower".
Generally, two types of florets can be distinguished:
A tongue- or strap-like, zygomorphous flower-type and a tube-like, radial-symmetric flower-type. The tongue- or strap-like flowers can appear in several distinct shapes, but the main types are the so-called ray flowers and the ligulate flowers.
Ray flowers are located on the rim of the composite flower and appear often in conspicous colours and an arrangement mimicking the ordinary petals of other flower types.
Typical ray flowers form for example the outer white flowers of the Daisy (Bellis sp.).
In some species, like for example in the Wall Lettuce (Mycelis muralis), the head is composed solely of ray flowers.
Ligulate flowers possess most often a tongue-like shape and form the heads of species whose inflorescence consists completely of ligulate flowers.
The tube-like, radially symmetric florets are called disk flowers. They are found on heads alone, for example in Tanacetum vulgare or mixed with ray flowers, e.g. like in species of Senecio.
Additionally, the whole single composite flower is often enclosed by ordinary, but morphologically different leaves, which are called involucral bracts or - as a whole - an involucrum.
These bracts are often small and scale-like. Before bloom they usually enclose the head completely and thus protect the inflorescence.
According to the different flower types in the Asteraceae three main types of composite flowers are distinguished, which in parts also reflect the ordering of different sub-families: Species with composite flowers consisting only of ligulate or ray flowers are classified as Cichorioideae, formerly also called Liguliflorae,
while species with composite flowers consisting only of disk flowers or of disk flowers mixed with ray flowers are ordered within the sub-family of the Asteroideae, formerly also known as Tubuliflorae.
In most recent taxonomic classifications like the APG scheme this division in two sub-families is not upheld,
as it appears that the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship between the members of the Asteraceae is much more complicated.
Especially the Cichorioideae are split up in different groups.
But for identification purposes on the genus or species level the separation between these groups is still useful and widely employed.

subfamilia:Cichorioideae, formerly Liguliflorae
German name:Zungenblütler
Notes:The Cichorioideae form together with the Asteroideae the two important sub-families of the Asteraceae,
but in more recent taxonomies the Cichorioideae subfamily is deprecated and split into several groups.
In this group the composite flowers consist solely of the tongue-like, zygomorphous flower-type.

genus:Taraxacum, F.H. Wigg., 1780
English name:Dandelion
German name:Kuhblume, Löwenzahn
Notes:Extremly diverse group with many recognized sub-species.

species: Taraxacum officinale, F.H. Wigg., 1780
Taraxacum officinale
English Name:Common Dandelion
German Name:Gemeine Kuhblume, Gemeiner Löwenzahn, Butterblume
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:06.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:April to June
Notes:
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Flower of Taraxacum officinale
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 06.05.2012

genus:Hieracium, L., 1753
English name:Hawkweed, Hierakion
German name:Habichtskraut

sub genus:Hieracium
German name:Echtes Habichtskraut

species: Hieracium sylvaticum, (L.) Gouan, 1773
Hieracium sylvaticum
English Name:Wood Hawkweed
German Name:Wald-Habichtskraut, Mauer-Habichtskraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:14.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to October
Notes:This species is also recognized as Hieracium murorum, L., 1753
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Flower of Hieracium sylvaticum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 14.06.2015

sub genus:Pilosella
German name:Mausohr-Habichtskraut

species: Hieracium pilosella, L., 1753
Hieracium pilosella
English Name:Mouse-Ear Hawkweed
German Name:Kleines Habichtskraut, Langhaariges Habichtskraut, Mausohr
Location:Brilon, NRW, Germany
Date:20.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:This species is also recognized as Pilosella officinarum, (L.) F.W. Schultz & Sch. Bip., 1862
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Habitus of Hieracium pilosella
Brilon, NRW, Germany, 20.06.2015

species: Hieracium aurantiacum, L., 1753
Hieracium aurantiacum
English Name:Orange Hawkweed
German Name:Orangerotes Habichtskraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:18.06.2012
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:This species is also recognized as Pilosella aurantiaca, (L.) F.W. Schultz & Sch. Bip., 1862
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Flower of Hieracium aurantiacum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 18.06.2012

genus:Lapsana, L., 1753
Notes:This is a monotypic genus containing only one recognized species: Lapsana communis

species: Lapsana communis, L., 1753
Lapsana communis
English Name:Nipplewort
German Name:Rainkohl
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:03.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Flower of Lapsana communis
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 03.07.2014

genus:Mycelis, Cass., 1824

species: Mycelis muralis, Dumort., 1827
Mycelis muralis
English Name:Wall Lettuce
German Name:Zarter Mauerlattich
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:03.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notes:
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Flower of Mycelis muralis
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 03.07.2014

genus:Cichorium, L., 1753
English name:Chicory
German name:Wegwarte

species: Cichorium intybus, L., 1753
Cichorium intybus
English Name:Common Chicory
German Name:Gemeine Wegwarte, Wilde Zichorie
Location:Hennef, NRW, Germany
Date:05.08.2011
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:Traditionally, especially in the Middle Ages utilized as medicine for various ailments. Contains the polysaccharid inulin and a diverse array of other compounds. Cultivated forms are used as lettuce (radicchio, sugarloaf, belgian endive).
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Flower of Cichorium intybus
Hennef, NRW, Germany, 05.08.2011

subfamilia:Asteroideae, formerly Tubuliflorae
German name:"Röhrenblütler"
Notes:The Asteroideae form together with the Cichorioideae the two important sub-families of the Asteraceae
In this group the composite flowers consist either solely of the tube-like, symmetrical flower-type like in Carlina or of tube-like flowers mixed with the tongue-like flower-type. Within the latter group the composite flower is often arranged in a way that the tongue-like flowers are situated at the outer rim of the composite flower, while the tube-like flowers occupy the inner part of the composite flower, as for example visible in the Matricaria or the Achillea.

genus:Achillea, L., 1753
English name:Yarrow
German name:Schafgarbe

species: Achillea millefolium, L., 1753
Achillea millefolium
English Name:Yarrow, Milfoil, Allheal, Thousand-Leaf, Bloodwort, Carpenter's Grass, Cammock, Green Arrow
German Name:Gemeine Schafgarbe
Location:Waldbröl, NRW, Germany
Date:15.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:A. millefolium is traditionally used in herbal medicine, especially to cure ailments regarding the bile, the kidneys or the bladder.
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Inflorescence of Achillea millefolium
Waldbröl, NRW, Germany, 15.07.2014

species: Achillea ptarmica, L., 1753
Achillea ptarmica
English Name:Sneezewort, Sneezeweed, Sneezewort Yarrow, Wild Pellitory, Fair-Maid-of-France
German Name:Sumpf-Schafgarbe, Sumpf-Garbe, Bertram-Schafgarbe
Location:Waldbröl, NRW, Germany
Date:17.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Achillea ptarmica
Waldbröl, NRW, Germany, 17.07.2014

genus:Matricaria, L., 1753
German name:Kamille

species: Matricaria chamomilla, L., 1753
Matricaria chamomilla
English Name:German Chamomile, Hungarian Chamomile (Kamilla), Wild Chamomile or Scented Mayweed
German Name:Echte Kamille
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:06.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:Image no. 2 shows the hollow inside of the receptacle. Such characteristic can be used to distinguish the German chamomile from similar looking species like M. inodora or M. maritima, where the receptacle is pithy (see image no. 2 below).
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Flower of Matricaria chamomilla
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 06.07.2014

species: Matricaria inodora, L., 1755
Matricaria inodora
English Name:Corn Chamomile, Mayweed, Scentless Chamomile, Field Chamomile
German Name:Duftlose Kamille
Location:Reichshof, NRW, Germany
Date:12.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:This species is now re-grouped to the genus Anthemis and renamed to Anthemis arvensis.
Image no. 2 shows the pithy inside of the receptacle. Such characteristic can be used to distinguish the Scentless chamomile from similar looking species like the German Chamomile M. chamomilla, where the receptacle is hollow (see image no. 2 above).
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Flower of Matricaria inodora
Reichshof, NRW, Germany, 12.07.2014

genus:Tussilago, L., 1753
Notes:Monotypic genus, containing only one species, Tussilago farfara.

species: Tussilago farfara, L., 1753
Tussilago farfara
English Name:Coltsfoot
German Name:Gemeiner Huflattich
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:23.03.2014
Description:Grows, often abundantly, at disturbed sites, like river banks, gravel beds or roadsides.
Flowers with a diameter of 2-5 cm appear in spring on erect stems of 10-30 cm length.
The stems lack regular leaves but are covered by small, hairy, scale-like leaves.
At end of bloom the regular leaves appear, which are rounded, heart-shaped and resemble a colt's foot in cross-section. The latter characteristic is also responsible for the common name of the plant.
Bloom:March to April
Notes:Traditional medicinal plant, which was used in form of teas, poultices or inhaltions as treatment against various conditions of illness, like flu, colds, rheumatism, skin irritations and others. Especially the leaves contain compounds which are capable to act as expectorant and mucolytic agent, so that T. farfara is regarded as one of the oldest known medicines against cough. Such medicinal usage is also reflected in the genus name of this plant, as Tussilago is derived from the latin words 'tussis' and 'ago', meaning 'cough' and 'act on', respectively.
Contemporary research has revealed that T. farafara contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are regarded as cytotoxic and cancerogenic compounds,
so that Coltfoot treatments over longer periods of time cannot be recommended.
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Flower of Tusssilago farfara
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 03.08.2013

genus:Petasites, Mill., 1754
English name:Butterbur
German name:Pestwurz

species: Petasites hybridus, (L.) G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., 1801
Petasites hybridus
English Name:Common Butterbur, Bog Rhubrab, Devil's Hat, Pestilence Wort
German Name:Gewöhnliche oder Gemeine Pestwurz, Rote Pestwurz, Bach-Pestwurz
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:10.04.2015
Description:Grows often on or near wet or temporarily flooded river banquets with nutrient rich soils.
Perennial, herbaceous plant with an erect stem, 2-20 cm tall at bloom and up to 150 cm tall when fruiting.
Leaves are round, hairy on the underside and can reach diameters of 40-70 cm. They appear after the flowers.
The pale pink flowers are small (5-12 mm) and grow on clustered inflorescences.
Bloom:March to April
Notes:The rhizome contains essential oils and other bioactive compounds. Used in tradtional medicine.
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Inflorescence of Petasites hybridus
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 10.04.2015

genus:Senecio, L., 1753
English name:Ragwort, Groundsel
German name:Greiskraut

species: Senecio ovatus, (G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.) Willd., 1803
Senecio ovatus
English Name:Wood Ragwort
German Name:Fuchs' Kreuzkraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:03.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:A valid, often encountered synonym of S. ovatus is Senecio fuchsii, C.C. Gmel., 1808.
The original authorship seems also to be disputed, as some botanists regard the publication of Hoppe, 1802 as the first valid description of this species.
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Inflorescence of Senecio ovatus
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 03.08.2013

species: Senecio jacobaea, L., 1753
Senecio jacobaea
English Name:Common Ragwort, Tansy Ragwort, Benweed
German Name:Jakobs-Kreuzkraut, Jakobs-Greiskraut
Location:Eckenhagen, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to October
Notes:S. jacobaea was renamed to Jacobaea vulgaris, but S. jacobaea remains still a valid synonym.
The plant has a very long flowering period, which can reach far into December in mild winters.
Also, this species contains alkaloids, which can impose a threat to cattle and horses, when S. jacobaea is overly fed, e.g. as a component of hay.
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Inflorescence of Senecio jacobaea
Eckenhagen, NRW, Germany, 12.07.2014

genus:Carlina, L., 1753
English name:Carline Thistles
German name:Eberwurz

species: Carlina vulgaris, L., 1753
Carlina vulgaris
English Name:Common Carline Thistle
German Name:Golddistel, Gemeiner Eberwurz
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Flower of Carlina vulgaris
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2014

genus:Cirsium, Mill., 1754
English name:Plume Thistles
German name:Kratzdistel

species: Cirsium acaule, Scop., 1769
Cirsium acaule
English Name:Stemless Thistle, Dwarf Thistle
German Name:Stengellose Kratzdistel, Erd-Kratzdistel
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2015
Description:Grows on semi-dry grasslands or meadows, favoring loamy, calcareous soils.
Bloom:June to September
Notes:C. acaule is a quite rare species and appears on the red-list of NRW as endangered.
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Inflorescence of Cirsium acaule
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2015

species: Cirsium palustre, (L.) Scop., 1772
Cirsium palustre
English Name:Marsh Thistle, European Swamp Thistle
German Name:Sumpf-Kratzdistel
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:11.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Cirsium palustre
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 11.06.2015

species: Cirsium vulgare, (Savi) Ten., 1836
Cirsium vulgare
English Name:
German Name:Gemeine Kratzdistel, Lanzett-Kratzdistel
Location:Blankenheim, NRW, Germany
Date:07.07.2015
Description:Favors calcareous, nitrogen-rich soils.
Bloom:June to October
Notes:C. vulgare is also known by the valid synonym Cirsium lanceolatum
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Inflorescence of Cirsium vulgare
Blankenheim, NRW, Germany, 07.07.2015

genus:Centaurea, L., 1753
English name:Centaury, Centory, Starthistle, Knapweed, Centaurea, Bluet, Loggerhead
German name:Flockenblume

species: Centaurea cyanus, L., 1753
Centaurea cyanus
English Name:Common Cornflower, Bachelor's Button, Bluebottle, Boutonniere Flower, Hurtsickle, Cyani Flower
German Name:Kornblume
Location:Rheinberg, NRW, Germany
Date:17.06.2015
Description:Thrives as weed in or at agricultural sites utilized for growing grain (wheat, barley, oat, rye).
Bloom:June to October
Notes:Due to the methods of intensified agriculture (herbicides etc.), C. cyanus has become a rare species in many places.
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Inflorescence of Centaurea cyanus
Rheinberg, NRW, Germany, 17.06.2015

species: Centaurea jacea, L., 1753
Centaurea jacea
English Name:Brown Knapweed
German Name:Wiesen-Flockenblume
Location:Reichshof, NRW, Germany
Date:03.10.2014
Description:Grows on semi-dry to dry grasslands and meadows, favoring loamy soils.
Bloom:June to October
Notes:
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Flower of Centaurea jacea
Reichshof, NRW, Germany, 03.10.2014

species: Centaurea scabiosa, L., 1753
Centaurea scabiosa
English Name:Greater Knapweed
German Name:Grosse Flockenblume, Skabiosen-Flockenblume, Grind-Flockenblume
Location:Rheinberg, NRW, Germany
Date:17.06.2015
Description:Grows on dry or semi-dry grasslands, favoring fluffy, calcareous soils.
Bloom:June to October
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Centaurea scabiosa
Rheinberg, NRW, Germany, 17.06.2015

classis:Liliopsida, formerly Monocotyledonae

sub classis:Arecidae

ordo:Arales
Notes:In more recent taxonomies, like the APG scheme, the Arales order is collapsed and the families contained within are re-ordered and placed in other groups.

familia:Araceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Arum family
German name:Aronstabgewächse
Notes:In more recent taxonomies the Araceae family is placed within the order of the Alismatales.

genus:Arum, L., 1753
German name:Aronstab

species: Arum maculatum, L., 1753
Arum maculatum
English Name:Cuckoo Pint, Lords and Ladies, Devils and Angels, Cows and Bulls, Adam and Eve, Bobbins, Naked Boys, Starch-Root, Wake Robin
German Name:Gefleckter Aronstab
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:06.05.2012
Description:
Bloom:April to June
Notes:A. maculatum is poisonous and especially the ingestion of the berries should be avoided.
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Habitus of Arum maculatum
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 06.05.2012

genus:Calla, L., 1753
English name:Bog Arum, Marsh Calla, Wild Calla, Water-Arum
German name:Drachenwurz
Notes:Monotypic genus with only one species, Calla palustris

species: Calla palustris, L., 1753
Calla palustris
English Name:Bog Arum, Marsh Calla, Wild Calla, Water-Arum
German Name:Drachenwurz, Sumpf-Calla, Sumpfkalla, Schlangenwurz, Schlangenkraut, Sumpf-Schlangenwurz, Schweinsohr
Location:Windeck, NRW, Germany
Date:30.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:C. palustris is poisonous and especially the ingestion of the berries should be avoided.
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Inflorescence of Calla palustris
Windeck, NRW, Germany, 30.05.2015

sub classis:Commelinidae

ordo:Juncales
Notes:

familia:Juncaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Rush family, Rushes
German name:Binsengewächse
Notes:

genus:Luzula, DC., 1805
English name:Wood Rush
German name:Hainsimse

species: Luzula campestris, (L.) DC., 1805
Luzula campestris
English Name:Field Wood-Rush, Good Friday Grass, Sweep's Brush
German Name:Feld-Hainsimse
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:22.04.2015
Description:
Bloom:April to May
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Luzula campestris
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 22.04.2015

ordo:Cyperales
Notes:

familia:Cyperaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Sedge family, Sedges
German name:Sauergräser, Riedgräser
Notes:

genus:Scirpus, L., 1753
English name:Club-Rush, Bulrush, Deergrass, Grassweed
German name:Simse, Binse

species: Scirpus sylvaticus, L., 1753
Scirpus sylvaticus
English Name:Wood Club-Rush
German Name:Flatter-Binse
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:27.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:
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Flowers of Scirpus sylvaticus
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 27.05.2015

genus:Carex, L., 1753
English name:Sedges
German name:Segge

species: Carex demissa, Hornem., 1806
Carex demissa
English Name:Common Yellow Sedge
German Name:Grünliche Gelb-Segge, Grüne Segge, Verkannte Gelb-Segge, Aufsteigende Segge
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:12.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:
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Female inflorescence of Carex demissa
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 12.05.2015

ordo:Typhales
Notes:

familia:Sparganiaceae, Hanin, 1811
German name:Igelkolbengewächse
Notes:

genus:Sparganium, L., 1753
English name:Bur-Reed
German name:Igelkolben

species: Sparganium erectum, L., 1753
Sparganium erectum
English Name:European Bur-Reed
German Name:Ästiger Igelkolben
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:25.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Sparganium erectum
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 25.06.2014

ordo:Poales
Notes:

familia:Poaceae, Barnhart, 1895, formerly Gramineae
English name:True Grasses
German name:Süssgräser
Notes:

genus:Alopecurus, L., 1753
English name:Foxtail Grass
German name:Fuchsschwanzgras

species: Alopecurus pratensis, L., 1753
Alopecurus pratensis
English Name:Meadow Foxtail, Field Meadow Foxtail
German Name:Wiesen-Fuchsschwanzgras
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:01.05.2009
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Alopecurus pratensis
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 01.05.2012

sub classis:Liliidae

ordo:Liliales

familia:Liliaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Lily family
German name:Liliengewächse
Notes:Flowers often developed as a perigon

genus:Paris, L., 1753
German name:Einbeere
Notes:Newer taxonomies place the Paris genus within the Melanthiaceae, while in the International Plant Name Index [w02] it is a member of the Trilliaceae

species: Paris quadrifolia, L., 1753
Paris quadrifolia
English Name:Herb Paris, True Lover's Knot
German Name:Vierblättrige Einbeere
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:11.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:
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Flower of Paris quadrifolia
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 11.05.2015

genus:Narthecium, Huds., 1762
Notes:Newer taxonomies, like the APG II system, place the Narthecium genus within its own family of the Nartheciacea, while in the International Plant Name Index [w02] it is a member of the Melanthiaceae

species: Narthecium ossifragum, (L.) Huds., 1762
Narthecium ossifragum
English Name:Bog-Asphodel, Lancashire-Asphodel or Bastard Asphodel
German Name:Moorlilie, Beinbrech
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:13.07.2014
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notes:
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Inflorescence of Narthecium ossifragum
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 13.07.2014

ordo:Asparagales
Notes:The order Asparagales was introduced quite recently and is not present in the Cronquist system.
Most members of this order were formerly classified within the order of the Liliales.

familia:Amaryllidaceae, J. St.-Hil., 1805
English name:Amaryllis family
German name:Narzissengewächse
Notes:This family comprises mostly herbaceous, perennial and bulbous plants.

genus:Galanthus, L., 1753
English name:Snowdrop
German name:Schneeglöckchen
Notes:The genus Galanthus comprises about 20 species, mainly found in Europe, the Caucasus and South-West Asia.
All species contain galantamine, a substance used to treat dementia.

species: Galanthus nivalis, L., 1753
Galanthus nivalis
English Name:Common Snowdrop
German Name:Kleines Schneeglöckchen, Gewöhnliches Schneeglöckchen
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:07.03.2009
Description:
Bloom:February to April
Notes:
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Habitus of Galanthus nivalis
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 07.03.2009

genus:Leucojum, L., 1753
English name:Snowbell, Dewdrop, St. Agnes' flower
German name:Knotenblume
Notes:According to current taxonomy this genus contains only two species: Leucojum vernum and Leucojum aestivum

species: Leucojum vernum, L., 1753
Leucojum vernum
English Name:Spring Snowflake
German Name:Frühlings-Knotenblume, Märzenbecher, Sommertürchen, Grosses Schneeglöckchen
Location:Herveler Bruch, NRW, Germany
Date:28.03.2015
Description:
Bloom:February to April
Notes:This plant is a protected species in Germany. It contains toxic and harmful alkaloids in all parts of the plant, so that touching and ingestion should be avoided.
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Habitus of Leucojum vernum
Herveler Bruch, NRW, Germany, 28.03.2015

familia:Iridaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Iris family
German name:Schwertliliengewächse
Notes:This family comprises mostly herbaceous, perennial and bulbous plants.

genus:Iris, L., 1753
German name:Schwertlilie

species: Iris pseudacorus, L., 1753
Iris pseudacorus
English Name:Yellow Iris, Yellow Flag
German Name:Sumpf-Schwertlilie, Gelbe Schwertlilie, Wasser-Schwertlilie
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:17.06.2014
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notes:The plant depicted on images 3-6 is a cultivated plant.
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Flower of Iris pseudacorus
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 15.06.2014

familia:Convallariaceae, Horan., 1834
Notes:In the APG III system the Convallariaceae family is deprecated and the species of this family are placed within the newly created family Nolinoideae.

genus:Convallaria, L., 1753

species: Convallaria majalis, L., 1753
Convallaria majalis
English Name:Lily of the Valley
German Name:Maiglöckchen, Maiblume
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:20.05.2014
Description:
Bloom:April to June
Notes:C. majalis contains several toxins and ingestion of the flowers and fruits or even skin contact with parts of the plant should be avoided.
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Flower of Convallaria majalis
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 20.05.2014

familia:Colchicaceae, DC., 1804
German name:Zeitlosengewächse

genus:Colchicum, L., 1753
German name:Zeitlose

species: * Colchicum bivonae, Guss., 1821
Colchicum bivonae
English Name:
German Name:
Location:Neuss, NRW, Germany
Date:28.09.2011
Description:
Bloom:
Notes:This species was at first identified as Colchicum autumnale, L. 1753, as there is no other species of Colchcium native to Germany. But further investigation showed that according to the form and color of the tepals this species must be either C. speciosum var. bornmuelleri, C. bivonae or one of the many Colchicum cultivars. As it was found in a park-like environment, it might have been intentionally planted or 'escaped' from nearby gardens.
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Flower of Colchicum bivonae
Neuss, NRW, Germany, 28.09.2011

familia:Hyacinthaceae, Batsch ex Borkh., 1797
German name:Hyacinthengewächse
Notes:In newer taxonomies the Hyacinthaceae are recognized as sub-family Scilloideae within the family of the Asparagaceae.

genus:Ornithogalum, L., 1753
Notes:Newer taxonomies, like the APG II system, place the Ornithogalum genus within the family of the Asparagaceae, in older systems the genus was placed within the family of the Liliaceae, while according to the International Plant Name Index [w02] it is still a member of the Hyacinthaceae

species: Ornithogalum umbellatum, L., 1753
Ornithogalum umbellatum
English Name:Common Star-of-Bethlehem, Garden Star-of-Bethlehem, Grass Lily, Nap-at-Noon, Eleven-o'Clock Lady
German Name:Doldiger Milchstern
Location:Waldbröl, NRW, Germany
Date:31.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:
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Flower of Ornithogalum umbellatum
Waldbröl, NRW, Germany, 31.05.2015

genus:Scilla, L., 1753
English name:Squill, Scilla
German name:Blaustern

species: Scilla siberica, Andrews, 1804
Scilla siberica
English Name:Siberian Squill, Wood Squill
German Name:Sibirischer Blaustern, Nickende Sternhyazinthe, Sibirische Sternhyazinthe
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:13.04.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to April
Notes:S. siberica is not native to Middle Europe, but often planted as garden ornamental. As the plant depicted here was not planted by human hands, it might be a 'naturalized' form or 'escaped' a nearby garden.
The authorship of this species appears to be disputed, as some regard Haw. the original author.
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Flower of Scilla siberica
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 13.04.2013

ordo:Orchidales

familia:Orchidaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Orchids
German name:Orchideen

genus:Epipactis, Zinn, 1757
English name:Helleborine
German name:Stendelwurz
Notes:

species: Epipactis helleborine, (L.) Crantz, 1769
Epipactis helleborine
English Name:Broad-Leaved Helleborine
German Name:Breitblättrige Sitter, Breitblättrige Sumpfwurz, Breitblättrige Stendelwurz
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:04.08.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:
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Flower of Epipactis helleborine
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 04.08.2013

genus:Listera, R. Br., 1813
English name:Twayblade
German name:Zweiblatt
Notes:In more recent taxonomies the Listera genus is included in the Neottia genus and the species of Listera were renamed accordingly.

species: Listera ovata, (L.) R. Br., 1813
Listera ovata
English Name:Eggleaf Twayblade, Common Twayblade
German Name:Grosses Zweiblatt
Location:Wiehl, NRW, Germany
Date:10.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:Like all orchids in Germany L. ovata is a protected species.
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Flower of Listera ovata
Wiehl, NRW, Germany, 10.06.2013

genus:Neottia, Guett., 1754
German name:Nestwurz
Notes:In Germany Neottia nidus-avis is the only known species of this genus, which occurs naturally in forest environments.
More recent taxonomies place the Listera genus within the Neottia genus and the Listera species are renamed accordingly.
But whereas the Listera species are green-colored plants, producing chlorophyll, Neottia species do not synthesize chlorophyll and are therefore most often dull colored.
Because of the lack of chlorophyll Neottia species cannot produce energy via the process of photosynthesis, but instead parasitize on fungi in the soil, which break up nutrients for the plant.
Such form of carbon sourcing and energy generation via a dependence on fungi (Mycota) is called mycoheterotrophy or sometimes just mycotrophy.
Another orchid with such a mycotrophic life form is the genus Corallorhiza, which is frequently encountered in forests of North-Western America. Based on the physiologic and morphologic differences the distinction between Listera and Neottia genera is held upright in this document, although molecular phylogenetic studies have demonstrated the close relationship of the two groups.

species: Neottia nidus-avis, (L.) Rich., 1817
Neottia nidus-avis
English Name:Bird's-nest Orchid
German Name:Bräunliche Nestwurz, Vogelnest-Orchidee
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:11.05.2015
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notes:Like all orchids in Germany N. nidus-avis is a protected species.
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Inflorescence of Neottia nidus-avis
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 11.05.2015

genus:Gymnadenia, R. Br., 1813
German name:Händelwurz
Notes:

species: Gymnadenia conopsea, (L.) R. Br., 1813
Gymnadenia conopsea
English Name:Fragrant Orchid
German Name:Mücken-Händelwurz, Grosse Händelwurz, Nacktdrüse
Location:Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany
Date:19.06.2015
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notes:Like all orchids in Germany G. conopsea is a protected species.
G. conopsea appears to be a quite polymorphous species, as variations of tallness, colour and hue, and especially of the number of flowers in the inflorescence are frequently encountered, even at different plants growing in the same location.
For example, image no. 3 depicts a very small, ca. 15 cm tall plant with a few pale flowers which were found growing on sandy, meagre soil, while images no.'s 5-7 are derived from a plant with deeply coloured flowers, growing over a 1 m (!) tall.
If these variations justify classifications as sub-species seems to be disputed, but at least some botanists acknowledge plants of G. conopsea with numerous leaves and densely flowered infloresecences as a distinct sub-species, called G. conopsea ssp. densiflora.
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Inflorescence of Gymnadenia conopsea
Bröl River Valley, NRW, Germany, 19.06.2015

genus:Dactylorhiza, Neck. ex Nevski, 1937
English name:Marsh Orchid, Spotted Orchid
German name:Knabenkraut
Notes:The exact relationship of the species D. maculata and D. fuchsii is still unresolved.
Characteristics of these species described in the literature are often found to be inconsistent and misleading.
For some authors the two species belong to one and the same species and together with D. saccifera orchids of this type are collectively referred to as D. maculata agg..
Because of these difficulties, the identification of the plants shown below was recently revised,
whereby the former D. maculata is now identified as D. fuchsii and vice versa.
Anyhow, the identification should still be regarded as unsafe, because at the time the plants were pictured, certain characteristics were not properly recognized (e.g. the shape of the ground leaves).

species: * Dactylorhiza maculata, (L.) Soó, 1962
Dactylorhiza maculata
English Name:Heath Spotted Orchid, Moorland Spotted Orchid
German Name:Geflecktes Knabenkraut, Kuckucksblume
Location:Detmold, NRW, Germany
Date:21.06.2012
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notes:Like all orchids in Germany, D. maculata is a protected species.
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Inflorescence of Dactylorhiza maculata
Detmold, NRW, Germany, 21.06.2012

species: * Dactylorhiza fuchsii, (Druce) Soó, 1962
Dactylorhiza fuchsii
English Name:Common Spotted Orchid, Fuchs' Dactylorhiza
German Name:Fuchs' Knabenkraut, Fuchs' Fingerknabenkraut
Location:Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany
Date:15.06.2012
Description:
Bloom:June to July
Notes:Like all orchids in Germany, D. fuchsii is a protected species.
The plants on images no. 1-9 grew out of seeds from Austria. So most probably this orchid belongs to the subspecies D. fuchsii ssp. psychrophila.
The plant on images no. 10-12 is native to NRW, but identification is somewhat unclear, so that it might belong to D. maculata.
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Inflorescence of Dactylorhiza fuchsii
Nümbrecht, NRW, Germany, 15.06.2012



Authors and corresponding publications of botanical names: * see note

Aiton - William Aiton 1731-1793

Andrews - Henry Charles Andrews, fl. 1794-1830
Scilla siberica - 'Botanists' Repository, for New, and Rare Plants', (Bot. Repos.), 6:t.365, 1804

Barnhart, nom. cons. - John Hendley Barnhart, 1871-1949
Poaceae - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), 22:7, 1895

Batsch - August Johann Georg Karl Batsch, 1761-1802
Violaceae - 'Tabula Affinitatum Regni Vegetabilis', (Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.), 57, 1802

Bercht. - Bedřich (Friedrich) Všemír (Wssemjr) von Berchtold, 1781-1876
Asteraceae, J. Presl. & Bercht., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednanj o ziwobitj rostlin...', (Prir. Rostlin), 254, 1820
Aquifoliaceae, Bercht. & J. Presl., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin aneb rostlinar, obsahugjcj popsanj a wyobrazenj ...', (Prir. Rostlin Aneb. Rostl.), 2(110):438, 440, 1825
Cornaceae, J. Presl & Bercht., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednanj o ziwobitj rostlin...', (Prir. Rostlin), 2(23*):91/92, 1825

M. Bieb. - Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein, 1768-1826

Boreau - Alexandre Boreau, 1803-1875
Viola reichenbachiana - 'Flore du Centre de la France, edition 3', (Fl. Centre France), [Boreau], 2:78, 1857

Borkh. - Moritz (Moriz) Balthasar Borkhausen, 1760-1806
Hyacinthaceae - 'Botanisches Wörterbuch: oder, Versuch einer Erklärung der vornehmsten Begriffe und Kunstwörter in der Botanick.', (Bot. Wörterb.), Giessen, 1:315, 1797
Primulaceae, nom. cons. - 'Botanisches Wörterbuch: oder, Versuch einer Erklärung der vornehmsten Begriffe und Kunstwörter in der Botanick.', (Bot. Wörterb.), Giessen, 2:240, 1797
Melanthiaceae, nom. cons. - 'Botanisches Wörterbuch: oder, Versuch einer Erklärung der vornehmsten Begriffe und Kunstwörter in der Botanick.', (Bot. Wörterb.), Giessen, 2:8, 1797

R. Br. - Robert Brown, 1773-1858
Calystegia, nom. cons. - 'Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae van-Diemen', (Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. ), 483, 1810
Calystegia sepium - 'Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae van-Diemen', (Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. ), 483, 1810
Celastraeae, nom. cons. - 'Voyage to Terra Australis.', (Voy. Terra Austral.), 2:554, 1814
Gymnadenia - 'Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew.', (Hortus Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], ed. 2, London, 5:191, 1813
Gymnadenia conopsea - 'Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew.', (Hortus Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], ed. 2, London, 5:191, 1813
Listera - 'Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew.', (Hortus Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], ed. 2, London, 5:201, 1813
Listera ovata - 'Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew.', (Hortus Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], ed. 2, London, 5:201, 1813
Oxalidaceae, nom. cons. - 'Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire, usually called the Congo in South Africa, in 1816, Under the Direction of Captain J. K. [sic, for H.] Tuckey, R.N. To Which is Added the Journal of Professor Smith...', (Narr. Exped. Zaire), London, 433, 1818

Burnett - Gilbert Thomas Burnett, 1800-1835
Brassicaceae, nom. cons. - 'Outlines of Botany.', (Outlines Bot.), London, 854/1093/1123, 1835

Cass. - Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini, 1781-1832
Mycelis - 'Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, dans lequel on traite méthodiquement des différens êtres de la nature, considérés soit en eux-mêmes, d'aprés l'état actuel de nos connoissances, soit relativement à l'utilité quén peuvent retirer la médecine, l'agriculture, le commerce et les arts. Strasbourg. Edition 2.', (Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2 [F. Cuvier]), 33:483, 1824

Cavara - Fridiano Cavara, 1857-1929
Alliaria petiolata, Cavara & Grande - 'Bulletino dell' Orto Botanico della Regia Universita de Napoli.', (Bull. Orto Bot. Regia Univ. Napoli), Naples, 3:418, 1913

Cham. - Ludolf Karl Adelbert von Chamisso, 1781-1838

Clairv. - Joseph Philippe de Clairville, 1742-1830
Silene coronaria - 'Manuel d'Herborisation en Suisse et en Valais, redigé selon le systême de Linné, corrigé par ses propres principes. Avec l'indication d'un nouveau systême derivé également des principesde ce grand maître.', (Man. Herbor.), Winterthour, Suisse, 145, 1811
Silene dioica - 'Manuel d'Herborisation en Suisse et en Valais, redigé selon le systême de Linné, corrigé par ses propres principes. Avec l'indication d'un nouveau systême derivé également des principesde ce grand maître.', (Man. Herbor.), Winterthour, Suisse, 146, 1811

Coult. - Thomas Coulter, 1793-1843
Knautia arvensis - Dipsac. 29

Crantz - Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz, 1722-1799
Epipactis helleborine - 'Stirpium Austriarum Fasciculus. Editio Altera Aucta.', (Stirp. Austr. Fasc., ed. 2.), Vienna, 2:467, t.57, 1769

A. DC. - Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de Candolle, 1806-1893

DC. - Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, 1778-1841
Colchicaceae - 'Essai sur les propriétés médicales des plantes, comparées aves leurs formes extérieures et leur classification naturelle', (Essai Propr. Méd. Pl.), 56, 1804
Impatiens parviflora - 'Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis...', (Prodr.), [A. P. de Candolle], 1:687, 1824
Luzula - 'Flore Francaise, ou Descriptions Succinctes de Toutes les Plantes qui Croissent Naturellement en France...', (Fl. Franc.), [DC. & Lamarck], ed. 3, 3:158, 1805
Luzula campestris - 'Flore Francaise, ou Descriptions Succinctes de Toutes les Plantes qui Croissent Naturellement en France...', (Fl. Franc.), [DC. & Lamarck], ed. 3, 3:161, 1805

Desf. - René Louiche Desfontaines, 1750-1833

Douglas - David Douglas, 1799-1834

Fabr. - Philipp Conrad Fabricius 1714-1774
Alliaria - 'Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum', (Enum.), [Fabr.], Ed. 1, 161, 1759
Lamiastrum - 'Enumeratio Methodica Plantarum', (Enum.), [Fabr.], Ed. 1, 51, 1759

Druce - George Claridge Druce, 1850-1932

Duby - Jean Étienne Duby, 1798-1885
Orobanche hederae - 'Aug. Pyrami de Candolle Botanicon Gallicum, pars prima Plantas Vascullares', (Bot. Gall.), 350, 1828

Dumort. - Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier, 1797-1878
Mycelis muralis - 'Florula belgica, opera majoris prodromus Staminacia auctore B.-C. Dumortier', (Fl. Belg.), 60, 1827

Geyer - Carl (Charles) Andreas Geyer, 1809-1853

C.C. Gmel. - Carl (Karl) Christian Gmelin, 1762-1837
Senecio fuchsii - 'Flora Badensis Alsatica', (Fl. Bad.), 3:444, 1808

G. Gaertn. - Philipp Gottfried Gaertner, 1754-1825
Petasites hybridus - G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. - 'Oekonomisch-Technische Flora der Wetterau', (Oekon. Fl. Wetterau), 3(1):184, 1801

Gouan - Antoine Gouan, 1733-1821
Hieracium sylvaticum - 'Illustrationes et Observationes Botanicae, ad specierum historiam facientes.', (Ill. Observ. Bot.), 56, 1773

Grande - Loreto Grande, 1878-1965
Alliaria petiolata, Cavara & Grande - 'Bulletino dell' Orto Botanico della Regia Universita de Napoli.', (Bull. Orto Bot. Regia Univ. Napoli), Naples, 3:418, 1913

Gray - Samuel Frederick Gray, 1766-1828
Persicaria maculosa - 'Natural Arrangement of British Plants, According to Their Relation to Each Other, as Pointed Out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown &c.', (Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl.), London, 2:269, 1821

Guett. - Jean Étienne Guettard, 1715-1786
Neottia, nom. cons. - 'Histoire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences. Avec les Mémoires de Mathematique & de Physique.', (Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. Mém. Math. Phys. (Paris, 4°)), Paris, 1750:354, 1754

Guss. - Giovanni Gussone, 1787-1866
Colchicum bivonae - 'Catalogus Plantarum quae asservantur in Regio Horto ... Boccadifalco, prope Panormum. Adduntur nonnullae adnotationes, ac descriptiones novarum aliquot specierum', (Cat. Pl. Hort. Boccadifalco), 4, 1821

Haeckel - Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, 1834-1919

Hanin - L. Hanin, fl. 1800
Sparganiaceae - 'Cours de Botanique.', (Cours Bot.), Paris, 400, 1811

Hanson - Peter Hanson, 1824-1887

Haw. - Adrian Hardy Haworth, 1768-1833
Scilla siberica - 'Botanists' Repository, for New, and Rare Plants', (Bot. Repos.), 6:t.365, 1804

Heist. - Lorenz Heister, 1683-1758

J. St.-Hil. - Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1772-1845
Amaryllidaceae, nom. cons. - 'Exposition des Familles Naturelles...Paris (chez Treuttel et Würtz, ...), Strasbourg (meme Maison de Commerce)', (Expos. Fam. Nat.), 1:134, 1805
Lythraceae, nom. cons. - 'Exposition des Familles Naturelles...Paris (chez Treuttel et Würtz, ...), Strasbourg (meme Maison de Commerce)', (Expos. Fam. Nat.), 2:175, 1805

Hill - John Hill, 1716-1775
Centaurium - 'The British Herbal (Brit. Herb.) 62, 1756'
Primula elatior - 'Vegetable System (Veg. Syst.) VIII, 25, 1765'

Hoffmanns. - Johann Centurius von Hoffmannsegg, 1766-1849
Polygalaceae, Hoffmanns. & Link, nom. cons. - 'Flore Portugaise ou description de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement en Portugal.', Berlin, (Fl. Portug.), 1:62, 1809

Hoppe - David Heinrich Hoppe, 1760-1846
Senecio ovatus - 'Botanische Zeitung welche Recensionen, Abhandlungen, Aufsaetze, Neuigkeiten und Nachrichten, die Botanik betreffend enthaelt.', Regensburg, (Bot. Zeitung (Regensburg)), 1(24):375, 1802

Horan. - Paul (Paulus) Fedorowitsch Horaninow, 1769-1865
Convallariaceae - 'Primae Lineae Systematis Naturae, nexui naturali omnium evolutionique progressivae per nixus reascendentes superstructi.', Petropol (Petersburg), (Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.), 53, 1834

Hornem. - Jens Wilken Hornemann, 1770-1841
Carex demissa - 'Flora Danica', (Fl. Dan.), 7:21, 1806

Hort. - Hortulanorum, meaning 'of gardeners'

House - Homer Doliver House, 1878-1949

Huds. - William Hudson, 1730-1793
Ficaria verna - 'Flora Anglica; exhibens Plantas per Regnum Angliae Sponte Crescentes, Distributas Secundum Systema Sexuale: cum Differentiis Specierum, Synonymis Auctorum, Nominibus Incolarum, Solo Locorum, Tempore Florendi, Officinalibus Pharmacopoerum.', (Fl. Angl.), [Hudson], Londini [London], 214, 1762
Narthecium - 'Flora Anglica; exhibens Plantas per Regnum Angliae Sponte Crescentes, Distributas Secundum Systema Sexuale: cum Differentiis Specierum, Synonymis Auctorum, Nominibus Incolarum, Solo Locorum, Tempore Florendi, Officinalibus Pharmacopoerum.', (Fl. Angl.), [Hudson], Londini [London], 127, 1762
Narthecium ossifragum - 'Flora Anglica; exhibens Plantas per Regnum Angliae Sponte Crescentes, Distributas Secundum Systema Sexuale: cum Differentiis Specierum, Synonymis Auctorum, Nominibus Incolarum, Solo Locorum, Tempore Florendi, Officinalibus Pharmacopoerum.', (Fl. Angl.), [Hudson], Londini [London], 128, 1762

Hull - John Hull, 1761-1843
Calluna vulgaris - 'British Flora, or a Linnaean Arrangement of British Plants. Edition 2.', (Brit. Fl., ed. 2), 114, 1808'

Jord. - Claude Thomas Alexis Jordan 1814-1897

Juss. - Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, 1748-1836
Araliaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 40, 1789
Aristolochiaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 72, 1789
Asparagaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 217, 1789
Berberidaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 286, 1789
Boraginaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 182, 1789
Campanulaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 163, 1789
Caryophyllaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 299, 1789
Caprifoliaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 210, 1789
Convolvulaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 132, 1789
Cyperaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 26, 1789
Dipsacaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 194, 1789
Ericaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 159, 1789
Gentianaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 141, 1789
Geraniaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 268, 1789
Hypericaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 254, 1789
Iridaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 57, 1789
Juncaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 43, 1789
Labiatae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 110, 1789
Liliaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 48, 1789
Malvaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 271, 1789
Onagraceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 317, 1789
Orchidaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 64, 1789
Papaveraceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 235, 1789
Plantaginaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 89, 1789
Ranunculaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 231, 1789
Rosaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 334, 1789
Saxifragaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 308, 1789
Scrophulariaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 117, 1789
Solanaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 124, 1789
Thymelaeaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 76, 1789

L'Hér. - Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle, 1746-1800
Erodium - ''Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew.', (Hort. Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], London, 2:414, 1789
Erodium cicutarium - ''Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew.', (Hort. Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], London, 2:414, 1789

J.F.Lehm. - Johann Friedrich Lehmann, 1781-1831
Euphrasia stricta - 'Primae Lineae Florae Herbipolensis: quas speciminis loco inauguralis ut summos in universa arte medica honores adipiscatur, placido eruditorum examini / submittit ad diem iv. Februarii MDCCCIX. Joannes Fridericus Lehmann.' (Prim. Lin. Fl. Herbipol.), 43, 1809

Link - Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link, 1767-1851
Petrorhagia - Handbuch zur Erkennung der Nutzbarsten und am Häufigsten Vorkommenden Gewächse (Handbuch), 2:235, 1831
Petrorhagia saxifraga - Handbuch zur Erkennung der Nutzbarsten und am Häufigsten Vorkommenden Gewächse (Handbuch), 2:235, 1831
Polygalaceae, Hoffmanns. & Link, nom. cons. - 'Flore Portugaise ou description de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement en Portugal.' Berlin, (Fl. Portug.), 1:62, 1809

L. - Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné), 1707-1780
Achillea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:896, 1753
Achillea millefolium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:899, 1753
Achillea ptarmica - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:898, 1753
Aconitum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:532, 1753
Aconitum napellus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:532, 1753
Ajuga - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:561, 1753
Ajuga reptans - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:561, 1753
Allium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:294, 1753
Alopecurus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:60, 1753
Alopecurus pratensis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:60, 1753
Anagallis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:148, 1753
Anagallis arvensis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:148, 1753
Anemone - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:538, 1753
Anemone nemorosa - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:541, 1753
Asarum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:442, 1753
Atropa - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:181, 1753
Atropa bella-donna - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:181, 1753
Aquilegia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:533, 1753
Aquilegia vulgaris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:533, 1753
Arum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:964, 1753
Arum maculatum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:966, 1753
Betonica - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:573, 1753
Betonica officinalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:573, 1753
Borago - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:137, 1753
Borago officinalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:137, 1753
Caltha - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:558, 1753
Caltha palustris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:558, 1753
Campanula - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:163, 1753
Campanula patula - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:163, 1753
Campanula rotundifolia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:163, 1753
Campanula persicifolia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:164, 1753
Campanula rapunculoides - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:165, 1753
Campanula trachelium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:166, 1753
Campanula glomerata - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:166, 1753
Cardamine - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:654, 1753
Cardamine pratensis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:656, 1753
Carex - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:972, 1753
Calla - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:968, 1753
Calla palustris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:968, 1753
Carlina - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:828, 1753
Carlina vulgaris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:828, errata [1231], 1753
Chelidonium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:505, 1753
Chelidonium majus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:505, 1753
Centaurea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:909, 1753
Centaurea cyanus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:911, 1753
Centaurea jacea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:914, 1753
Centaurea scabiosa - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:918, 1753
Cichorium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:813, 1753
Cichorium intybus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:813, 1753
Circaea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:9, 1753
Circaea lutetiana - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:9, 1753
Clematis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:543, 1753
Clematis vitalba - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:544, 1753
Colchicum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:341, 1753
Colchicum autumnale - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:341, 1753
Comarum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:502, 1753
Comarum palustre - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:502, 1753
Convallaria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:314, 1753
Convallaria majalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:314, 1753
Coronilla - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:742, 1753
Coronilla varia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:743, 1753
Daphne - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:356, 1753
Daphne mezereum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:356, 1753
Dianthus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:409, 1753
Dianthus armeria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:410, 1753
Digitalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:621, 1753
Digitalis purpurea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:621, 1753
Echium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:139, 1753
Echium vulgare - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:139, 1753
Epilobium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:347, 1753
Epilobium angustifolium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:347, 1753
Epilobium hirsutum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:347, 1753
Erica - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:352, 1753
Erica tetralix - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:353, 1753
Euonymus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:197, 1753
Euonymus europaea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:197, 1753
Euphrasia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:604, 1753
Galanthus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:288, 1753
Galanthus nivalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:288, 1753
Geranium - Genera Plantarum, ed. 5, 1754
Geranium robertianum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:681, 1753
Geranium dissectum - Centuria Plantarum (Cent. Pl.), 1:21, 1755
Glechoma - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:578, 1753
Glechoma hederacea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:578, 1753
Globularia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:95, 1753
Globularia bisnagarica - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:96, 1753
Hieracium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:799, 1753
Hieracium pilosella - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:800, 1753
Hieracium aurantiacum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:801, 1753
Hieracium murorum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:802, 1753
Hypericum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:783, 1753
Hypericum hirsutum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:786, 1753
Hypericum pulchrum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:785, 1753
Hypericum perforatum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:785, 1753
Hypericum pulchrum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:786, 1753
Ilex - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:125, 1753
Ilex aquifolium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:125, 1753
Impatiens - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:937, 1753
Impatiens noli-tangere - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:938, 1753
Iris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:38, 1753
Iris pseudacorus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:38, 1753
Iris sibirica - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:39, 1753
Knautia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:101, 1753
Lamium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:579, 1753
Lamium galeobdolon - 'Amoenitates Academici seu dissertationes variae physicae, medicae...', (Amoen. Acad., Linnaeus ed.), 4:485, 1759
Lapsana - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:811, 1753
Lapsana communis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:811, 1753
Lathyrus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:729, 1753
Leucojum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:289, 1753
Leucojum vernum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:289, 1753
Lilium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:302, 1753
Lonicera - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:173, 1753
Lonicera periclymenum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:173, 1753
Lychnis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:436, 1753
Lychnis flos-cuculi - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:436, 1753
Lysimachia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:146, 1753
Lysimachia vulgaris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:146, 1753
Lysimachia nemorum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:148, 1753
Lythrum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:446, 1753
Lythrum salicaria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:446, 1753
Malva - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:687, 1753
Malva moschata - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:690, 1753
Matricaria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:890, 1753
Matricaria chamomilla, nom. cons. - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:891, 1753
Matricaria inodora - 'Flora Suecica ("Svecica") Exhibens Plantas per Regnum Sveciae Crescentes.' (Fl. Suec.), ed. 2 (Linnaeus), 297, 1755
Medicago - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:778, 1753
Medicago lupulina - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:779, 1753
Mimulus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:634, 1753
Ononis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:716, 1753
Ononis repens - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:717, 1753
Ononis spinosa - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:716, 1753
Ornithogalum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:306, 1753
Ornithogalum umbellatum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:307, 1753
Orobanche - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:632, 1753
Oxalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:433, 1753
Oxalis acetosella - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:433, 1753
Paris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:367, 1753
Paris quadrifolia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:367, 1753
Phyteuma - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:170, 1753
Phyteuma spicatum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:171, 1753
Plantago - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:112, 1753
Plantago lanceolata - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:113, 1753
Plantago major - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:112, 1753
Polygala - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:701, 1753
Polygala vulgaris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:702, 1753
Polygonum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:359, 1753
Polygonum aviculare - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:362, 1753
Polygonum bistorta - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:360, 1753
Polygonum lapathifolium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:360, 1753
Polygonum persicaria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:361, 1753
Potentilla - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:495, 1753
Potentilla anserina - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:495, 1753
Potentilla reptans - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:499, 1753
Primula - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:142, 1753
Primula veris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:142, 1753
Prunella - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:600, 1753
Prunella vulgaris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:600, 1753
Pyrola - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:396, 1753
Ranunculus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:548, 1753
Ranunculus ficaria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:550, 1753
Ranunculus flammula - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:548, 1753
Ranunculus repens - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:554, 1753
Rhinanthus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:603, 1753
Rhinanthus minor - 'Amoenitates Academici seu dissertationes variae physicae, medicae...', (Amoen. Acad.), Linnaeus ed., 3:54, 1756
Rubus, nom. cons. - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:492, 1753
Sanguisorba - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:116, 1753
Saxifraga - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:398, 1753
Scabiosa - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:98, 1753
Scabiosa columbaria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:99, 1753
Scilla - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:308, 1753
Scilla bifolia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:309, 1753
Scirpus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:47, 1753
Scirpus sylvaticus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:51, 1753
Senecio - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:866, 1753
Senecio jacobae - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:870, 1753
Silene - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:416, 1753
Solanum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:184, 1753
Solanum dulcamara - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:185, 1753
Solanum nigrum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:186, 1753
Sparganium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:971, 1753
Sparganium erectum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:971, 1753
Stachys - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:580, 1753
Stachys palustris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:580, 1753
Stachys sylvatica - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:580, 1753
Stellaria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:421, 1753
Stellaria nemorum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:421, 1753
Stellaria holostea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:422, 1753
Symphytum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:136, 1753
Symphytum officinale - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:136, 1753
Teucrium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:562, 1753
Teucrium scorodonia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:564, 1753
Trientalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:344, 1753
Trientalis europaea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:344, 1753
Trifolium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:764, 1753
Trifolium repens - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:767, 1753
Trifolium pratense - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:768, 1753
Trifolium montanum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:770, 1753
Tussilago - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:865, 1753
Tussilago farfara - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:865, 1753
Verbascum - Species Plantarum, (Sp. Pl.), 1:177, 1753
Verbascum nigrum - Species Plantarum, (Sp. Pl.), 1:178, 1753
Vicia - Species Plantarum, (Sp. Pl.), 2:734, 1753
Vicia cracca - Species Plantarum, (Sp. Pl.), 2:735, 1753
Vicia sepium - Species Plantarum, (Sp. Pl.), 2:737, 1753
Viola - Species Plantarum, (Sp. Pl.), 2:933, 1753

L. f. - Carl von Linnaeus filius (Carl von Linné, Carl Linnaeus), 1741-1783

Lindl. - John Lindley, 1799-1865
Fabaceae, nom. cons. - 'Natural System of Botany: or, a Systematic View of the Organisation, Natural Affinities, and Geographical Distribution, of the Whole Vegetable Kingdom; Together with the Uses of the Most Important Species in Medicine, the Arts, and Rural and Domestic Economy.', Edition 2, (Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2.), London, 148, 1836

Martinov - Ivan Ivanovič Martinov (Ivan Ivanovich Martynov, Jean Martinoff), 1771-1833
Lamiaceae, nom. cons. - 'Tekhno-Botanicheskīǐ Slovar´: na latinskom i rossīǐskom i͡azykakh.', (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar), Sanktpeterburgie [St. Petersburg], 355, 1820

Menzies - Archibald Menzies, 1754-1842

Mill. - Philip Miller, 1691-1771
Cirsium - 'The Gardeners Dictionary: containing the methods of cultivating and improving all sorts of trees, plants, and flowers, for the kitchen, fruit, and pleasure gardens, as also those which are used in medicine :
with directions for the culture of vineyards, and making of wine in England : in which likewise are included the practical parts of husbandry..., corrected and enlarged. Abrig'd from the folio edition..., Edition 4.', (Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4.), London, 1754
Linaria - 'The Gardeners Dictionary..., Edition 4.', (Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4.), London, 334, 1754
Linaria vulgaris - 'The Gardeners Dictionary, Edition 8.', (Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 8.), London, n.1, 1768
Petasites - 'The Gardeners Dictionary..., Edition 4.', (Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4.), London, 1754

B. Mey. - Bernhard Meyer, 1767-1836

Mutis - José Celestino Bruno Mutis (José Celestino Bruno Mutis y Bosio), 1732-1808

Neck. - Noel Martin Joseph de Necker, 1730-1793

Nevski - Sergei Arsenjevic (Arsenjevič) Nevski (Nevskiǐ), 1908-1938
Dactylorhiza - 'Trudy Botanicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR. Ser. 1. Flora i Sistematika Vyssikh Rastenii. Acta Instituti Botanici Academiae Scientiarum URPSS.', (Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast.), Moscow & Leningrad [St. Petersburg], 4:332, 1937

Poir. - Jean Louis Marie Poiret, 1755-1834

J. Presl - Jan Svatopluk (Swatopluk) Presl, 1791-1849
Aquifoliaceae, Bercht. & J. Presl., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin aneb rostlinar, obsahugjcj popsanj a wyobrazenj ...', (Prir. Rostlin Aneb. Rostl.), 2(110):438, 440, 1825
Asteraceae, J. Presl. & Bercht., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednanj o ziwobitj rostlin...', (Prir. Rostlin), 254, 1820
Cornaceae, J. Presl. & Bercht., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednanj o ziwobitj rostlin...', (Prir. Rostlin), 2(23*):91/92, 1825

Raeusch. - Ernst Adolf Raeuschel, fl. 1772-1797
Potentilla erecta - 'Nomenclator botanicus (Raeusch.)', (Nomencl. Bot.), 152, 1797

Raf. - Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, 1783-1840

Rafn - Carl Gottlob Rafn, 1769-1808
Centaurium erythraea - 'Danmarks og Holsteens Flora', (Danm. Holst. Fl.), 2:75, 1800

A. Rich. - Achille Richard 1794-1852
Balsaminaceae, nom. cons. - 'Dictionnaire Classique d'Histoire Naturelle, par Messieurs Audouin, Isid. Bourdon, Ad. Brongniart, de Candolle ... et Bory de Saint-Vincent. Ouvrage dirigé par ce dernier collaborateur.', (Dict. Class. Hist. Nat.), [Bory], Paris, 2:173, 1822

Rich. - Louis Claude Marie Richard, 1754-1821
Neottia nidus-avis - 'De Orchideis Europaeis Annotationes.', (De Orchid. Eur.), 37, 1817

Richardson - John Richardson, 1787-1865

Royle - John Forbes Royle, 1798-1858
Impatiens glandulifera - 'Illustrations of the Botany... of the Himalayan Mountains...', (Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts.), [Royle], 2, t. 28, fig. 2, 1834

Salisb. - Richard Anthony Salisbury, 1761-1829
Calluna - 'Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 6.', (Trans. Linn. Soc.), London, 6:317, 1802

Savi - Gaetano Savi, 1769-1844

Scherb. - Johannes Scherbius, 1769-1813

Schkuhr - Christian Schkuhr, 1741-1811
Polygala comosa - 'Botanisches Handbuch der mehresten Theils in Deutschland...' (Bot. Handb.), 2:324, t. 194, 1796

Schltdl. - Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal, 1794-1866

Schmidel - Casimir Christoph Schmidel, 1718-1792

F. W. Schmidt - Franz Willibald Schmidt, 1764-1796
Phyteuma nigrum - 'Flora Boemica inchoata, exhibens plantarum regui Boemiae indigenarum species.' (Fl. Boem.), 2:87, 1793

Scholl. - Friedrich Adam Scholler, 1718-1795
Prunella grandiflora - 'Fl. Barb.', 140, 1775

Schult. - Josef (Joseph) August Schultes, 1773-1831

Schult. f. - Julius Hermann Schultes, 1804-1840

Sch. Bip. - Carl (Karl) Heinrich `Bipontinus' Schultz, 1805-1867
Pilosella officinarum, F.W. Schultz & Sch. Bip. - 'Flora; oder, (allgemeine) botanische Zeitung.', (Flora), Regensburg, Jena, 45(27):421-422, 1862
Pilosella aurantiaca, F.W. Schultz & Sch. Bip. - 'Flora; oder, (allgemeine) botanische Zeitung.', (Flora), Regensburg, Jena, 45(27):426, 1862

F. W. Schultz - Friedrich Wilhelm Schultz, 1804-1876
Pilosella officinarum, F.W. Schultz & Sch. Bip. - 'Flora; oder, (allgemeine) botanische Zeitung.', (Flora), Regensburg, Jena, 45(27):421-422, 1862
Pilosella aurantiaca, F.W. Schultz & Sch. Bip. - 'Flora; oder, (allgemeine) botanische Zeitung.', (Flora), Regensburg, Jena, 45(27):426, 1862

Scop. - Joannes Antonius (Giovanni Antonio) Scopoli, 1723-1788
Cirsium acaule - 'Annus I-V Historico-Naturalis...', (Annus Hist.-Nat.), Lipsiae [Leipzig], 2:62, 1769
Cirsium palustre - 'Flora Carniolica Exhibens Plantas Carniolae Indigenas et Distributas in Classes Naturales cum Differentiis Specificis, Synonymis Recentiorum, Locis Natalibus, Nominibus Incolarum, Observationibus Selectis, Viribus Medicis. Editio Secunda Aucta et Reformata.', (Fl. Carniol., ed. 2.), Vienna, 2:228, 1772
Potentilla palustris - 'Flora Carniolica Exhibens Plantas Carniolae Indigenas et Distributas in Classes Naturales cum Differentiis Specificis, Synonymis Recentiorum, Locis Natalibus, Nominibus Incolarum, Observationibus Selectis, Viribus Medicis. Editio Secunda Aucta et Reformata.', (Fl. Carniol., ed. 2.), Vienna, 1:359, 1771
Sanguisorba minor - 'Flora Carniolica Exhibens Plantas Carniolae Indigenas et Distributas in Classes Naturales cum Differentiis Specificis, Synonymis Recentiorum, Locis Natalibus, Nominibus Incolarum, Observationibus Selectis, Viribus Medicis. Editio Secunda Aucta et Reformata.', (Fl. Carniol., ed. 2.), Vienna, 1:110, 1771

Ser. - Nicolas Charles Seringe, 1776-1858

Small - John Kunkel Small, 1869-1938

Sm. - James Edward Smith, 1759-1828

Soó - K´roly Rezsö Soó von Bere, 1903-1980
Dactylorhiza fuchsii - 'Nomina Nova Generis Dactylorhiza.', (Nom. Nova Gen. Dactylorhiza), Budapest, 8, 1962
Dactylorhiza maculata - 'Nomina Nova Generis Dactylorhiza.', (Nom. Nova Gen. Dactylorhiza), Budapest, 7, 1962

Spreng. - Kurt (Curt) Polycarp Joachim Sprengel

Ten. - Michele Tenore 1780-1861
Cirsium vulgare - 'Flora Napolitana: ossia, Descrizione delle piante indigene del regno di Napoli, e delle piu rare specie di piante esotiche coltivate ne' Giardini ... Napoli : Nella Stamperia reale', (Fl. Napol.), 5, 209, 1836

Traub - Hamilton Paul Traub, 1890-1983

Trevis. - Vittore Benedetto Antonio Trevisan de Saint-Léon, 1818-1897
Stachys officinalis - 'Prospetto della Flora Euganea.', (Prosp. Fl. Eugan), Padova, 26, 1842

Vent. - Étienne Pierre Ventenat, 1757-1808
Orobanchaceae, nom. cons. - 'Tableau du Règne Végétal, Selon de Méthode de Jussieu.', (Tabl. Regn. Vég.), Paris, 2:292, 1799

Walter - Thomas Walter, 1740-1789

Wiegand - Karl McKay Wiegand, 1873-1942

F. H. Wigg. - Friedrich Heinrich (Fridrich Hindrich) Wiggers (Wichers), 1746-1811
Taraxacum - 'Primitiae Florae Holsaticae...Kiel', (Prim. Fl. Holsat.), 56, 1780
Taraxacum officinale - 'Primitiae Florae Holsaticae...Kiel', (Prim. Fl. Holsat.), 56, 1780
Maianthemum - 'Primitiae Florae Holsaticae...Kiel', (Prim. Fl. Holsat.), 14, 1780

Willd. - Carl Ludwig von Willdenow, 1765-1812
Senecio ovatus - 'Species Plantarum. Editio Quarta.', (Sp. Pl., ed. 4), Berolini [Berlin], 3(3):2004, 1803

J.P.Wolff - Johann Philipp Wolff, 1743-1825

Zinn - Johann Gottfried Zinn, 1727-1759
Epipactis, nom. cons. - 'Catalogus Plantarum Horti Academici et Agri Gottingensis', (Cat. Pl. Hort. Gott.), Gottingae [Göttingen], 85, 1757


Notice on notation:

The standard abbreviations of the authors, describing and naming the various plants (botanical authors) are given and expanded.
Their original publications are listed under the author's name, as provided by the International Plants Name Index [w02], with some minor changes as follows:
To avoid further decryption of abbreviations, the full name of the journal or other source is given, followed by the commonly used standard abbreviations of the respective journal or other source in parentheses, e.g. 'Species plantarum' (Sp. Pl.).
The names of publishers/editors of certain journals are provided in brackets (e.g. [Caroli Linnaeus]).
Also the present names of places or cities of publication, which were only named in Latin in the original title of the publication, are added in brackets behind the Latin name, e.g. Londini [London].
If an authorship denotes an 'ex', e.g. Batsch ex Borkh., only the latter author's publication is mentioned, similarily only the last author's publication is listed,
if a re-classification had occured, which is commonly denoted by enclosing the original author's name in parentheses, e.g. like in (L.) A. Gray.


References:

General references and textbooks:

[g01]: Aichele, Dietmar, Golte-Bechtle, Marianne, Was blühlt denn da?, Wildwachsende Blütenpflanzen Mitteleuropas, 55. Auflage, Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, 1993, ISBN: 3-440-06637-1
[g02]: Schmeil, O., Fitschen, J., Flora von Deutschland, 88. Auflage, Quelle & Meyer Verlag 1988, ISBN:

WWW resources:

[w01]: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[w02]: www.ipni.org, International Plant Names Index



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last updated: 20.08.17