Digital Herbarium
of Flowering Plants
of the Pacific North-West

Biology>Botany>Herbarium Pacific North-West
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Introduction:

In the summer of 2013 I visited the Pacific North-Western region of North-America, with a focus on exploring the region around Vancouver, Canada and the Olympic peninsula in the state of Washington, USA. Already at former stays I was fascinated by the beautiful landscape with its snow-capped mountain ranges and volcanoes, dense forests, rough and rocky ocean shores and sandy beaches (Figs. 1, 2, 3).
In this terrain, situated close to the ocean, the landscape is foremost characterized by its lush and evergreen vegetation, forming especially at the West coast of the Olympic mountains an unique habitat recognized as temperate rain-forest. Such forests are formed by the mild oceanic climate, which, in combination with the elevation of the mountains, guarantees a higher than average precipitation and results subsequently in a steady supply of water and a high air humidity within the interior of the forests.
Rain Forest of the Pacific Coast
Fig. 1: A typical conifer forest near the Pacific coast
of the Olympic peninsula, WA, USA.
The rain-forests, but also the much drier inland forests, are chiefly formed by conifers: Western red cedar, Yellow cedar, Douglas Fir, Hemlocks and Sitka spruce are the most prominent species. The conditions for these trees are such favorable that the Olympic peninsula is home to some of largest and oldest conifers known in North-America. In the understorey, at streams or river-banks Red Alder or Broad-leaved Maple occur as the main species of deciduous trees, while thickets in the underbrush, at sites of disturbance or at forest edges are formed by fruiting shrubs like species of the Rubus genus (salmonberry, blackberry, thimbleberry) or of the diverse Vaccinium genus (e.g. huckleberry, blueberry). In some places whole areas of the underbrush are rendered impassable by patches of the heavily thorned devil's club. Additionally, many species of ferns, mosses and lichens populate these forests and thrive well on the year-round availability of water and humidity.
Despite the dominating role of the conifers, the many flowering plants, growing at creek sides, mountain meadows, rocky ridges, road- and trailsides or just in the dense underbrush form the colorful and perfurming accents in this landscape, fascinating the observer's eye by their beauty and their intricate morphology.
Thus, equipped with a hand-lens, a basic set of maps and the very recommendable and comprehensive guide to the flora of the Pacific North-West by J. Pojar and A. McKinnon [g01], I started to explore the Olympic mountains on foot, by way of its many hiking trails. Soon this journey was transformed from a leisure trip to a botanic field-trip, as I questioned deeper into the various plants encountered on my wanderings.
With growing experience I started to locate, identify and photograph many of these wildflowers. As a result this little collection of plant images was created, inspired by a similar project, which presents plants found in my home country Germany (see Plants in NRW).
Without the ambition to be in any way complete, this collection nevertheless presents a cross-section through many of the plant families occuring in the Pacific North-West and contains some of the most interesting and beautiful species of flowering plants found in this region. But it should not go unnoticed, that due to the attractive nature of the subject, many web-sites already exist, which cover the same topic and treat the vegetation and especially the wildflowers of this region in a somewhat more comprising and professional way than I'm able to provide. Despite this obvious redundancy, I thought it would be more reasonable to publish these images, than to store and forget them on a harddisk.
The identification of the plants is based on the already mentioned work of Pojar et al. [g01] and was supplemented and augmented by various other sources, like the guide to Western forests by Whitney [g02] or the image collection of the herbarium of the University of Washington at the Burke museum [w03] (in the following referred to as the WTU image collection ).
Coastline at the Pacific Ocean
Fig. 2: A section of the rugged Pacific coast
of the Olympic peninsula, WA, USA.
Although many species were identified in the field, a great fraction was only identified by their photographs (see also the section about the used equipment below). Naturally, such an approach limits the accuracy of the identification, because important characters were often not recognized at the time the picture was taken and thus were later not available for identification. This happened in particular, when a species was encountered for the first time. Therefore, species for which identification is regarded unsafe are marked by a "*" character in front of their name. Most of the English plant names were also taken over from Pojar et al., again supplemented from other sources, like the English Wikipedia or the WTU image collection. Additionally, the German plant names are mentioned where applicable. Blooming times were mainly found in the WTU Image Collection, but it should be kept in mind that the given dates are only approximate and can vary considerably in different locations, especially in dependence on elevation. Botanic authorship and the list of original publications were investigated for each taxon at the International Plants Name Index (IPNI) [w10]. These and other web resources, which I found quite useful for identifying, describing and distinguishing the various species from my photographs, are listed below at World Wide Web resources.

The taxonomic ordering used in the present collection is, with minor adaptions, mainly based on the so-called Cronquist system, which I personally prefer over the more recent taxonomies, like the work of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (throughout the text referred to as APG). Where feasible, taxonomic alternatives or concurrent views are shortly discussed in the 'Notices' sections below each taxon entry.
Although the APG system is now regarded as a de-facto standard, as it integrates the latest result of taxonomic research with its many phylogenetic works, the resulting taxonomic framework appears still to be in state of high flux and changes frequently. Moreover, in my opinion the phylogenetic methods employed in a great share of the underlying publications can be questioned in many cases, as a lot of these research works are solely based on the comparison of ribosomal DNA fragments, especially those occuring in the chloroplasts. Although such molecular methods properly delineate the relative distances of inheritance of these sequences by way of the statistical probabilities, they still reflect only the matrilineal lineages of descendance, as the chloroplasts within the angiosperms are in most, if not all cases, strictly inherited from the female gametophytes. Therefore, evolutionary innovations (autapomorphies) transferred or introduced through the patrilineal lineage or by the even more important mode of recombinant, meiotic events are in most cases not taken into consideration and thus evolutionary distances, stemming from the aforementioned events and leading to many, more or less subtile and intricate adaptions and morphological variations are not well reflected by way of such strictly matrilineal phylogeny. Thus, in my humble opinion, molecular phylogeny should always be interpreted in the context of morphological/anatomical features and their respective variation, at least as long as whole genome comparisons are not available. That said, it should not get neglected, that many taxonomic works just do exactly so and use the method of molecular phylogeny as an additional tool to augment or support the finding of 'classical' comparative morphology.
I'm not an expert taxonomist, but I'm well aware, that with such a view I only reflect the opinion of a shrinking minority and naturally (or more precise, culturally) the growing trend of molecular analysis is in line with the modern trends of biology, where gene prospecting and molecular cloning has developed into a mature industry. Apparently it is easier to invest in products, like machines and chemicals, which in the very end benefit the few stakeholders of the manufacturing companies, than to spent a lot of time and financial expense in well educated taxonomists, which get along solely with a trained and scrutinizing eye, possibly augmented by an old-fashioned hand-lens or microscope.
View over the Summits of the Olympic Mountains
Fig. 3: View on the peaks of the Olympic mountains
in the interior of the Olympic National Park, WA, USA.
Although I do not have the numbers of the financial support of these differing activities at hand, I can imagine this relationship resembles more a Mt. Everest beside a heap of sand...
This is certainly not meant as a condemnation of the molecular and phylogenetic technologies as a whole and I do not want to illegitimate the numerous authors and researches coping with molecular phylogeny, but I do see and experience, not at least on myself, that the way how knowledge about the real entities of nature, namely the organisms, is gathered, interpreted and compiled, has shifted to an artificial, in-silico mode, while the basic common-ground, as well as the more sophisticated knowledge about the properties and morphologies of organisms is dwindling and on its retreat within the broader community of biologists. Thus, it appears to me, especially when looking at the list of botanical authors, that most of the morphological observations and descriptions are stemming from former centuries and that the knowledge about how to observe, distinguish and interpret the intricate features of plants and other organisms is thinning out. It would for example be very interesting to do a survey among modern molecular biologists, which covers only basic taxonomic and morphological questions and watch if the outcome of such a survey supports that theses biologists still know what they are dealing with...
Anyhow, I've drifted away, as the purpose of this web site is certainly not a discussion of the somewhat philosophical issues of modern taxonomy. So concludingly, a few remarks on the used equipment and the mode of the image retrieval should be given:
All of the pictures shown were taken by an affordable digital pocket camera, which bears the advantage of being robust, water-tight, light-weight and having an easy handling, but also exhibits some disadvantages in certain situations, where more professional equipment would surely produce better results. In general, the close-up macro images are of good quality, while the half-distant shots of a plant's habitus or of panoramic views are often of minor quality.
Additionally, the light conditions in the dense forests can be found very unfavorable and it was sometimes difficult to take well adjusted photographs, as darkest shade and brightest light occured together, bordered sharply at each other and covered often a whole, single plant. Thus, problems with the white balance of the digital images were frequently encountered and often it occured, that the range of brightness was not sufficiently covered. Also, I experienced that the auto-focus function had difficulties to focus on slender plants in short distance (0,5 - 2 m), so photographs of this kind were most of the time found slightly out of focus, rendering these images worthless or of lesser quality. Another difficulty arose from my own mode of movement: As I took mostly day-long hikes of 20-25 miles, the routes demanded often precise timing. Thus, as I took a lot of photographs (sometimes more than 350 per hike), accounting for at least one minute per session, I found myself easily spending hours of just taking pictures! This time had to be subtracted from the hiking time and I had to take care to reach the daily goal or find my way back home in time. Thus, there were certainly restrictions on the time available for taking well adjusted photographs and many attractive motives were left out. The same restrictions applied also for proper identification of the plants, so that the identification was often postponed to the interpretation of the made photographs. Moreover, many trails were quite strenous and bodily exhausting, so each stop for taking pictures meant an interruption of the walking rythm and added to the heartbeat, as I had to halt, loosen and release the backpack, catch my breath, compose myself and ready the camera. This altogether rendered photographing with a calm hand in many instances problematic.
Nevertheless, may the interested visitors of this site enjoy the images, get inspired to start 'botanizing' themselves or just increase his or her awareness of these beautiful organisms on the next outdoor trip.
The photographs can freely be used for educational or personal use, as long as the copyright notice and proper referencing is kept in place. Some of the pictures were made public domain, e.g. by providing them to the Wikimedia project and are available under the Commons Creative License. Larger, full quality images are available on request under the e-mail address found in the Legal & Disclaimer section.



domain:Eucarya, Eukaryota, Eukaryonta
Notices:Comprise all organisms with a 'real', i.e. distinctive, nucleus, which is enclosed and compartmented by a biomembrane and hosts the cell's genetic information.

regnum:Plantae, Haeckel, 1866
Notices:Comprises all plant organisms.
According to certain definitions and characteristics, some clades of plant organisms are included or excluded from that taxonomic classification so that several different definitions coexist:

Plantae sensu lato or Archaeplastidae: This group includes all green plants and the algae groups of the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta. This taxon comprises all photosynthetic organisms which are thought to have derived their chloroplasts from a primary endosymbiosis of an ancestral eukaryote with a blue alga (Cyanobacteriota)

Plantae sensu stricto, Viridiplantae or Chlorobionta: This definition includes all 'real' green plants, i.e. the algae group of the Chlorophyta (including the Charophyta) and all land plants, the Embryophyta. The members of this clade possess chlorophyll a and b, cell walls containing cellulose and plastides bound by two membranes. Furthermore they are capable of producing starch as a storage compound. This group is sometimes denoted as a sub regnum within the regnum Plantae. There is growing evidence that the Charophyta (especially the order of the Charales within the Charophyta) constitute the sister group of the Embryophyta (see the definition below), therefore the Charales and the Embryophyta are often grouped together in an unranked clade denoted as Streptophyta or Streptophytina

Plantae sensu strictissimo, Embryophyta or Metaphyta: This group comprises all land plants with the mosses (Bryophyta) and the vascular plants (Tracheophyta) which in turn are constituted from the clubmosses (Lycopodiophyta), the ferns and horsetails (Pteridophyta) and the seed plants (Spermatophyta)

sub regnum:Chlorobionta
Notices:Comprises all organisms which possess 'real' plastides capable of photosynthesis, a cell wall consisting of cellulose and pectin,
photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b and amylose/saccharose as reserve material.
The Taxa Chlorophyta (Green Algae), Bryophyta (Mosses), Pteridophyta (Ferns) and Spermatophyta (Semen Plants) fall under this category.
In the English literature the Chlorophyta often are left out and considered as a group of the 'Ordinary Algae'.

phylum:Spermatophyta
English name:Semen Plants
German name:Samenpflanzen
Notices:Comprises all plants which have developed semen as their entities of sexual proliferation, i.e. the zygote develops into an intermediate stage, the so-called embryo, which is commonly embedded in nourishing storage molecules (protein, fat, carbohydrates) and enclosed by layers of a protecting shell (testa, sarcotesta), forming as a whole the semen, which is usually capable to endure longer periods of dormancy before germinating and developing into the adult plant.

sub phylum:Angiospermae
English name:Flowering Plants
German name:Bedecktsamer, Blütenpflanzen
Notices:Comprises all plants which are characterized by having a protecting outer layer of tissue around the ovules, constituted by specialized leaves, the so-called carpels.
The carpels of each angiospermic plant form in their entirety the ovule and seed producing female organ, the gynoecium.
Although the APG taxonomy scheme deprecates the Angiospermae as a taxonomic classification, it is still widely in use to denote within the semen plants
the evolutionary and morphological difference between the plants with (Angiospermae) and without (Gymnospermae) outer protecting layer of the ovules.
It is estimated that the angiosperms comprise about 350000 species. Of these ca. 27000 are listed in 'The Plant List' [w11] with their accepted scientific names, taxonomically ordered in 406 families with about 14000 genera.

classis:Magnoliopsida, formerly Dicotyledonae
Notices:Comprises plants, whose germinating seedlings develop two cotyledons (morphologically distinct leaves of the germination stage).
Within the APG scheme the taxon Magnoliopsida and also the older taxon Dicotyledonae are regarded as deprecated,
but the division of the flowering plants into dicotyl (Magnoliopsida, dicots) and monocotyl (Liliopsida, monocots) plants is still widely used,
as it provides often crucial and precise characteristics for distinguishing the plants of these two groups.

ordo:Aristolochiales
Notices:In more recent taxonomies, like the APG, the Aristolochiales were merged with the order of the Piperales and its only family, the Aristolochiaceae are now placed within this order.

familia:Aristolochiaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Birthwort family
German name:Osterluzeigewächse
Notices:This family comprises ca. 610 species in 7 genera [w11].

genus:Asarum, L., 1753
English name:Wild Ginger
German name:Haselwurzen

species: Asarum caudatum, Lindl., 1831
Asarum caudatum
English Name:Western Wild Ginger
German Name:Geschwänzte Haselwurz
Location:Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:
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Habitus of Asarum caudatum
Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 04.07.2013

sub classis:Ranunculidae
Notices:This group of plants is characterized by its tricolpate pollen.

ordo:Ranunculales
Notices:

familia:Ranunculaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Buttercup family
German name:Hahnenfussgewächse
Notices:The Ranunculaceae family consist of ca. 2240 species ordered in 62 genera [w11].
Characteristic for most species of the Ranunculaceae is a bisexual (hermaphroditic) flower with an apocarpous (choricarpous) gynoecium (i.e. free standing, non-fused carpels).

genus:Ranunculus, L., 1753
Notices:Mostly yellow or white, sometimes red or orange flowers with 5, sometimes 6, numerous or none petals.
Species of the Ranunculus genus are poisonous and are usually avoided by grazing animals.
They contain the glucoside ranunculin which is broken down enzymatically to glucose and the toxin protoanemonin when the plants are macerated.

genus:Caltha, L., 1753
German name:Dotterblumen

species: Caltha leptosepala, DC., 1817
Caltha leptosepala
English Name:Alpine White Marsh-Marigold, Broad-Leaved Marsh-Marigold, White Marsh Marigold, Twinflowered Marsh Marigold, Elkslip
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:Several authors distinguish sub-species or even distinct species of this plant, e.g. Pojar et. al. [g1] describes Caltha biflora and C. leptosepala as different species, while the WTU Image Collection [w3] recognizes only one species, C. leptosepala.
Anyhow, as visible on the images, it appears that this species is quite polymorphic, as leaf form and color, as well as the appearance of the flowers varied considerably in separate populations found at different locations.
Notice image no. 7, which illustrates quite well the apocarpous gynoecium of this species' flowers.
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Habitus of Caltha leptosepala
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Trautvetteria, Fisch. & C.A. Mey., 1836
Notices:Monotypic genus with only one species Trautvetteria caroliniensis.

species: Trautvetteria caroliniensis, (Walter) Vail, 1890
Trautvetteria caroliensis
English Name:Carolina Bugbane, False Bugbane
German Name:
Location:Little River, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:
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Inflorescence of Trautvetteria caroliniensis
Little River, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Aquilegia, L., 1753
German name:Akeleien

species: Aquilegia formosa, Fisch. ex DC., 1824
Aquilegia formosa
English Name:Red Columbine, Western Columbine, Crimson Columbine
German Name:Schöne Akelei
Location:Black Diamond Road, Port Angeles, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to August
Notices:The flowers of A. formosa are edible, but the seeds are regarded as poisonous, due to their content of cyanogenic glycosides.
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Flower of Aquilegia formosa
Black Diamond Road, Port Angeles, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Actaea, L., 1753
English name:Baneberry, Bugbane
German name:Christophskräuter
Notices:Actaea species contain cardiogenic toxins, which are mostly contained within the berries.

species: Actaea rubra, (Aiton) Willd., 1809
Actaea rubra
English Name:Red Baneberry
German Name:Rotes Christophskraut, Rotfrüchtiges Christophskraut
Location:Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notices:A. rubra is poisonous and the toxic compounds are concentrated in the berries, which have a very bitter taste.
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Unripe fruits of Actaea rubra
Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Delphinium, L., 1753
English name:Larkspur
German name:Rittersporne
Notices:All species of Delphinium are known to be poisonous.

species: Delphinium glareosum, Greene, 1898
Delphinium glareosum
English Name:Olympic Larkspur
German Name:
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:
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Flower of Delphinium glareosum
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

genus:Thalictrum, L., 1753
English name:Meadow-Rue
German name:Wiesenrauten

species: Thalictrum occidentale, A. Gray., 1872
Thalictrum occidentale
English Name:Western Meadow-Rue
German Name:
Location:Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:T. occidentale is a dioecious plant with male and female flowers on different plants. Shown is a female inflorescence.
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Inflorescence of Thalictrum occidentale
Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

familia:Berberidaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Barberry family
German name:Berberitzengewächse
Notices:About 740 species ordered in 17 genera are recognized for this family [w11].

genus:Mahonia, Nutt., 1818

species: Mahonia nervosa, (Pursh) Nutt., 1818
Mahonia nervosa
English Name:Dull Oregon-Grape, Dwarf Oregon-Grape, Cascade Oregon-Grape
German Name:Nervige Mahonie
Location:Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:perennial, evergreen shrub
Bloom:March to June
Notices:Common in second-growth Douglas-fir or Hemlock forests. This species is often planted as a garden ornamental and is as such quite popular in European gardens. A synonymous name is Berberis nervosa.
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Inflorescence of Mahonia nervosa
Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

genus:Achlys, DC., 1821

species: Achlys triphylla, (Sm.) DC., 1821
Achlys triphylla
English Name:Vanilla Leaf, Deer Foot
German Name:
Location:Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notices:The leaves exhibit an intense vanilla scent on wilting or when being dried, possibly due to coumarin like substances contained in the plant.
For that reason A. triphylla leaves were traditionally used as an insect repellent or as an "air refresher" by Native Americans.
Personally, I made use of this property on some of my hikes and collected little bunches of deerfoot leaves in the evening and 'roasted' them near the fire. Afterwards the little clusters of leaves were arranged near the sleeping place. This worked out quite good on some occasions, but at certain places the mosquitos did not seem to be all to impressed...
Crucial for the vanilla fragrance seems to be the age of the plants as well as the drying process, as I experienced that slow drying of the leaves, e.g. by wilting, exhibited a stronger scent than the quick drying near a fire.
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Habitus of Achlys triphylla
Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 28.06.2013


ordo:Papaverales

familia:Fumariaceae
English name:Fumitory, fumewort or bleeding-heart family
German name:Erdrauchgewächse
Notices:In more recent taxonomies like the APG, the Fumariaceae are regarded as a sub-family within the Papaveraceae.

genus:Dicentra, Bernh., 1833
English name:Bleeding-heart
German name:Herzblumen
Notices:The seeds of Dicentra species are usually equipped with oil-rich appendages termed elaiosomes, which facilitate their dispersal by insects, especially ants.
Such a close relationship with ants for seed dispersal is often referred to as myrmecochory or, in a more general meaning, as myrmecophily.

species: Dicentra formosa, (Andrews) Walp., 1842
Dicentra formosa
English Name:Pacific Bleeding Heart
German Name:Amerikanische oder Pazifische Herzblume
Location:Lynn Creek Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:17.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to September
Notices:In Europe this species is often planted as an ornamental species in gardens or parks.
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Flower of Dicentra formosa
Lynn Creek Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 17.06.2013

sub classis:Caryophyllidae

ordo:Caryophyllales, formerly Centrospermae
Notices:Unique within the plants, the Caryophyllales produce betalaines (betacyans and betaxanthines) instead of anthocyanes.

familia:Portulacaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Purslane family
German name:Portulakgewächse
Notices:'The Plant list' recognizes for this family ca. 280 species in 16 genera [w11].
With exception of the genus Portulaca, all other genera of the Portulacaceae have been re-classified and moved to other families in the most recent APG system.

genus:Claytonia, L., 1753
Notices:The genus Claytonia is now regarded as a member of the Montiaceae family

species: Claytonia sibirica, L., 1753
Claytonia sibirica
English Name:Siberian Miner's Lettuce, Siberian Springbeauty, Candy Flower
German Name:
Location:Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to September
Notices:
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Flower of Claytonia sibirica
Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

sub classis:Dilleniidae

ordo:Violales

familia:Violaceae, Batsch, 1802
English name:Violet family
German name:Veilchengewächse
Notices:Family with about 490 accepted species in 21 genera [w11], but many species seem to be unassessed, so that the overall species number might be much larger.
Most of the known species are contained within the genus Viola.

genus:Viola, L., 1753
English name:Violet
German name:Veilchen, Stiefmütterchen
Notices:Largest genus within the Violaceae family with an estimated 500 to 600 species, mostly occurring in the temperate regions of the holarctic.

species: Viola flettii, Piper, 1898
Viola flettii
English Name:Olympic Violet, Flett's Violet
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:endemic to the Northern Olympic Mountains
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Habitus of Viola flettii
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

species: Viola glabella, Nutt., 1838
Viola glabella
English Name:Stream Violet, Yellow Wood Violet
German Name:
Location:Klahane Ridge Switchback Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to July
Notices:The species of Viola glabella and Viola orbiculata depicted here were found growing side by side. Their flowers are very similar, but the species can be distinguished by their different leaf shape
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Flower of Viola glabella
Klahane Ridge Switchback Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

species: Viola orbiculata, (A.Gray) Geyer ex Holz., 1895
Viola orbiculata
English Name:Round-leaved Yellow Violet
German Name:
Location:Klahane Ridge Switchback Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:The species of Viola glabella and Viola orbiculata depicted here were found growing side by side. Their flowers are very similar, but the species can be distinguished by their different leaf shape
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Flower of Viola orbiculata
Klahane Ridge Switchback Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

ordo:Capparales
Notices:In the more recent APG taxonomy, this group is recognized as Brassicales

familia:Brassicaceae, Burnett, 1835, formerly Cruciferae
English name:Mustard family, Cabbage family, Crucifers
German name:Kreuzblütlergewächse
Notices:Medium sized family comprising ca. 3500 species in 349 genera [w11].
The family is an agriculturally and hence economically important group, containing many species cultivated as food crops, like rapeseed (Brassica napus) or
cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli (all variations of Brassica oleracea).

genus:Erysimum, L., 1753
English name:Wallflower
German name:Schöteriche

species: Erysimum arenicola, S. Watson, 1891
Erysimum arenicola
English Name:Cascade Wallflower, Sand-Dwelling Wallflower
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notices:
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Habitus of Erysimum arenicola
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Smelowskia, C.A. Mey., 1831

species: Smelowskia americana, Rydb., 1902
Smelowskia americana
English Name:Alpine Smelowskia, Siberian Smelowskia
German Name:
Location:Klahane Ridge Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:
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Habitus of Smelowskia americana
Klahane Ridge Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

ordo:Ericales

familia:Ericaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Heather family
German name:Heidekrautgewächse
Notices:Simple, evergreen leaves without petioles.
Important and large family with more than 4000 species and a nearly worldwide distribution.
Members of the Ericaceae are tolerant of acidic and infertile soils,
thus often forming a characteristic vegetation (e.g. heathland) on such grounds.
Most species live in symbiosis with soil fungi (mycorrhiza).

genus:Gaultheria, L., 1753
German name:Scheinbeeren, Rebhuhnbeeren

species: Gaultheria shallon, Pursh, 1813
Gaultheria shallon
English Name:Salal
German Name:Shallon-Scheinbeere, Salal, Hohe Rebhuhnbeere
Location:Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:13.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:Edible fruits.
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Inflorescence of Gaultheria shallon
Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 13.06.2013

familia:Pyrolaceae
English name:Wintergreen family
German name:Wintergrüngewächse
Notices:Like many other members of the Ericaceae, the wintergreens live in symbiosis with soil fungi (mycorrhiza),
which supply the plant's roots with minerals in exchange for carbohydrates.
In some species this relationship is of a mycoheterotrophic nature, i.e. the plant is partially or fully parasitizing on the soil fungus,
without exchanging carbohydrates for the nutrients received; such species often exhibit diminished or completely abandoned photosynthesis,
marked by reduced or missing leaves and lack of chlorophyll.
In more recent, phylogenetic based taxonomies, like the APG, the Pyrolaceae are classified as a tribus within the sub-family of the Monotropoidae,
which in turn are placed within the family of the Ericaceae

genus:Pyrola, L., 1753
English name:Wintergreen
German name:Wintergrün
Notices:Most Pyrola species contain the glycoside aucubin, which has antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

species: Pyrola asarifolia, Michx., 1803
Pyrola asarifolia
English Name:Pink Wintergreen
German Name:
Location:Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notices:Used by some Native Americans as poultice for sores and swellings.
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Flower of Pyrola asariflora
Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 28.06.2013

species: Pyrola picta, Sm., 1817 (?)
Pyrola picta
English Name:White Veined Wintergreen
German Name:
Location:Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:
Notices:
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Flower of Pyrola picta
Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

genus:Orthilia, Raf., 1840
Notices:Monotypic genus with only one species: Orthilia secunda, synonymous names are Pyrola secunda and Ramischia secunda

species: Orthilia secunda, (L.) House, 1921
Orthilia secunda
English Name:One-Sided Wintergreen, Sidebells Wintergreen
German Name:Birngrün, Nickendes Wintergrün, Einseitswendiges Wintergrün
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:08.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Flower of Orthilia secunda
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 08.07.2013

genus:Chimaphila, Pursh, 1813
German name:Winterlieb

species: Chimaphila umbellata, (L.) Nutt., 1818
Chimaphila umbellata
English Name:Pipsissewa, Prince's-Pine, Umbellate Wintergreen
German Name:Dolden-Winterlieb
Location:Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Flower of Chimaphila umbellata
Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 28.06.2013

species: Chimaphila menziesii, (R. Br. ex D. Don) Spreng., 1825
Chimaphila menziesii
English Name:Menzies' Pipsissewa
German Name:
Location:Mount Storm King, WA, USA
Date:03.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Flower of Chimaphila menziesii
Mount Storm King, WA, USA, 03.07.2013

genus:Moneses, Salisb. ex Gray, 1821
Notices:This genus contains only two known species

species: Moneses uniflora, (L.), A. Gray, 1848
Moneses uniflora
English Name:Single Delight, Wax-Flower
German Name:Moosauge
Location:Seymour River Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:17.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to October
Notices:distributed all over the Northern hemisphere
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Flower of Moneses uniflora
Seymour River Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 17.06.2013

familia:Monotropaceae
English name:Monotropes
German name:Fichtenspargelgewächse
Notices:In the more recent APG taxonomy the Monotropaceae are included within the Ericaceae

genus:Monotropa, L., 1753
German name:Fichtenspargel

species: Monotropa uniflora, L., 1753
Monotropa uniflora
English Name:Indian-Pipe
German Name:
Location:Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:mycoheterotrophic plant, lacking chlorophyll and parasitizing on conifer mycorrhizae
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Habitus of Monotropa uniflora
Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: Monotropa hypopitys, L., 1753
Monotropa hypopitys
English Name:Pinesap, Dutchman's Pipe, Yellow Bird's-Nest
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:mycoheterotrophic plant, lacking chlorophyll and parasitizing on conifer mycorrhizae (mycoheterotrophy);
note the color variation, ranging from yellow over pinkish to red
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Habitus of Monotropa hypopitys
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Pterospora, Nutt., 1818
Notices:Monotypic genus with only a single species Pterospora andromedea

species: Pterospora andromedea, Nutt., 1818
Pterospora andromedea
English Name:Pinedrops, Albany beechdrops, Giant bird's-nest
German Name:
Location:Aurora Creek Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:mycoheterotrophic plant, lacking chlorophyll and parasitizing on tree mycorrhizae
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Shoot of Pterospora andromedea
Aurora Creek Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

genus:Allotropa, Torr. & A. Gray, 1858
Notices:Monotypic genus with only a single species, Allotropa virgata, which occurs only in the Pacific Northwest

species: Allotropa virgata, Torr. & A. Gray, 1858
Allotropa virgata
English Name:Candystick, Sugarstick, Barber's pole, Devil's wand
German Name:
Location:Elwha Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:mycoheterotrophic plant, lacking chlorophyll and parasitizing on the mycelium of Matsutake (Tricholoma magnivelare) mushrooms
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Habitus of Allotropa virgata
Elwha Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

genus:Hemitomes, A. Gray, 1858
Notices:Monotypic genus with only a single species, Hemitomes congestum

species: Hemitomes congestum, A. Gray, 1858
Hemitomes congestum
English Name:Gnome-Plant, Cone-Plant
German Name:
Location:Little River Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:mycoheterotrophic plant, lacking chlorophyll
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Habitus of Hemitomes congestum
Little River Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

ordo:Primulales

familia:Primulaceae, Batsch ex Borkh., 1797
English name:Primrose family
German name:Primelgewächse

genus:Dodecatheon, L., 1753
Notices:There is ongoing effort to include this genus within the Primula genus.
The special flower morphology of Dodecatheon with its recurved petals and its clustered, protruded stamens has led to a special mode of pollination called "buzz pollination":
The vibration of a bee or bumblebee wing-originated buzzing sound dislodges pollen from the anthers, which can then be harvested by the respective pollinator.

species: Dodecatheon jeffreyi, Van Houtte, 1867
Dodecatheon jeffreyi
English Name:Sierra Shooting Star, Tall Mountain Shooting Star, Jeffrey's Shooting Star
German Name:
Location:North Fork Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:09.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:This species was recently re-classified as Primula jeffreyi, (Van Houtte) A.R. Mast & Reveal, 2007
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Flower of Dodecatheon jeffreyi
North Fork Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 07.09.2013

genus:Douglasia, Lindl., 1827
German name:Douglasien

species: Douglasia laevigata, A. Gray, 1880
Douglasia laevigata
English Name:Smooth Douglasia
German Name:
Location:Klahane Ridge, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to August
Notices:
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Habitus of Douglasia laevigata
Klahane Ridge, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

genus:Trientalis, L., 1753
German name:Siebenstern

species: Trientalis latifolia, Hook., 1838
Trientalis latifolia
English Name:Broad-leaved Starflower, Western Starflower, Indian Potato, Pacific Starflower
German Name:Breitblättriger Siebenstern
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to July
Notices:
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Flower of Trientalis latifolia
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

sub classis:Rosidae

ordo:Rosales

familia:Saxifragaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Saxifrage family
German name:Steinbrechgewächse
Notices:Quite small family with about 460 species in 36 genera.

genus:Saxifraga, L., 1753
German name:Steinbrech

species: Saxifraga cespitosa, L., 1753
Saxifraga cespitosa
English Name:Tufted Saxifrage
German Name:Polstersteinbrech
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to September
Notices:
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Habitus of Saxifraga cespitosa
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

species: Saxifraga bronchialis, L., 1753
Saxifraga bronchialis
English Name:Spotted Saxifrage
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Flower of Saxifraga bronchialis
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Tiarella, L., 1753
English name:Foamflower
German name:Schaumblüten

species: Tiarella trifoliata, L., 1753
Tiarella trifoliata
English Name:Foamflower, Laceflower
German Name:Dreiblättrige Schaumblüte
Location:Lynn Creek Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:17.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:
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Inflorescence of Tiarella trifoliata
Lynn Creek Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 17.06.2013

familia:Rosaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Rose family
German name:Rosengewächse
Notices:Medium sized family with ca. 2800 species in 95 genera and a worldwide distribution.

genus:Rubus, L., 1753

species: Rubus parviflorus, Nutt., 1818
Rubus parviflorus
English Name:Thimbleberry
German Name:
Location:Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:13.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:Edible, juicy fruits.
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Flower of Rubus parviflorus
Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 13.06.2013

species: Rubus spectabilis, Pursh, 1813
Rubus spectabilis
English Name:Salmonberry
German Name:Pracht-Himbeere
Location:North Fork Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:09.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to June
Notices:Edible, juicy fruits.
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Fruit of Rubus spectabilis
North Fork Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 09.07.2013

species: Rubus discolor
Rubus discolor
English Name:Himalayan Blackberry
German Name:
Location:Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:Edible fruits.
The taxonomy of this introduced species appears quite disputed: Pojar et al. [g1] recognizes it as R. discolor, the WTU Image Collection [w3] refers to this species as R. bifrons, while in the English Wikipedia it is described as R. armeniacus.
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Flower of Rubus discolor
Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 28.06.2013

species: Rubus ursinus, Cham. & Schltdl., 1827
Rubus ursinus
English Name:Trailing Blackberry, California Blackberry, Dewberry
German Name:
Location:Port Angeles, WA, USA
Date:05.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to August
Notices:Edible fruits.
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Flower of Rubus ursinus
Port Angeles, WA, USA, 05.07.2013

species: Rubus pedatus, Sm.
Rubus pedatus
English Name:Five-Leaved Bramble, Creeping Raspberry
German Name:
Location:Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:Edible fruits.
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Flower of Rubus pedatus
Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

genus:Geum, L., 1753
English name:Avens
German name:Nelkenwurzen

species: Geum triflorum, Pursh, 1813
Geum triflorum
English Name:Old Man's Whiskers, Prairie Smoke, Three-Flowered Avens
German Name:
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to August
Notices:
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Inflorescence of Geum triflorum
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

ordo:Fabales

familia:Fabaceae Lindl., 1836; formerly Papillioaceae, also known as Leguminosae
English name:Pea, Legume or Bean family
German name:Hülsenfrüchtler, Leguminosen
Notices:Third largest family of land plants with more than 19000 known species.
This family contains many economically important species, utilized as food, e.g. peas (Pisum), beans (Phaseolus),
lentils (Lens) or soybean (Glycine), medicines or garden ornamentals;

genus:Lathyrus, L., 1753
English name:Sweet Peas, Vetchlings
German name:Platterbsen
Notices:Many Lathyrus species contain, especially in the seeds, the toxic amino acid ODAP, which could lead to a serious disease (lathyrism) when ingested in larger quantities

species: Lathyrus japonicus, Willd., 1802
Lathyrus japonicus
English Name:Beach Pea
German Name:Strand-Platterbse
Location:Port Angeles, WA, USA
Date:05.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notices:The seeds are edible, but should be consumed only in small quantities, as they contain the toxic amino acid ODAP.
The plant is distributed along most Northern Oceans, not at least because its seeds can be dispersed by ocean waters (hydrochory) and are capable of germination even after being submersed for years in sea water
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Inflorescence of Lathyrus japonicus
Port Angeles, WA, USA, 05.07.2013

ordo:Cornales

familia:Cornaceae, Bercht. & J. Presl., 1825
English name:Dogwood family
German name:Hartriegelgewächse

genus:Cornus, L., 1753
German name:Hartriegel, Hornstrauch

species: Cornus canadensis, L., 1753
Cornus canadensis
English Name:Bunchberry, Dwarf Dogwood
German Name:Kanadischer Hartriegel
Location:Seymour River Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:17.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:C. canadensis possesses an intricate, "explosive" mechanism for pollen distribution, which is one of the fastest plant movements known. A synonymous name is Cornus unalaschkensis, although this is regarded as a tertraploid hybrid species by some authors.
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Habitus of Cornus canadensis
Seymour River Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 17.06.2013

ordo:Geraniales

familia:Oxalidaceae, R. Br., 1818
English name:Oxalis or Wood-sorrel family
German name:Sauerkleegewächse

genus:Oxalis, L., 1753
English name:Wood Sorrel
German name:Sauerklee
Notices:Contains oxalic acid

species: Oxalis oregana, Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray, 1838
Oxalis oregana
English Name:Redwood Sorrel
German Name:
Location:Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:10.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to September
Notices:Does not need much light and grows in shady places.
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Habitus of Oxalis oregana
Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 10.07.2013

familia:Geraniaceae, Juss., 1789
German name:Storchschnabelgewächse

genus:Geranium, L., 1753
English name:Cranesbills
German name:Storchschnäbel, Geranien

species: Geranium robertianum, L., 1753
Geranium robertianum
English Name:Herb-Robert, Robert Geranium
German Name:Ruprechtskraut, Stinkender Storchschnabel
Location:Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:unpleasant odor
Bloom:March to July
Notices:G. robertianum was introduced from Eurasia and is meanwhile regarded as invasive species, especially in protected areas like National Parks.
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Habitus of Geranium robertianum
Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

ordo:Apiales

familia:Apiaceae, Lindl., 1836, formerly Umbelliferae
German name:Doldenblütler

genus:Lomatium, Raf., 1819

species: Lomatium martindalei, J.M. Coult. & Rose, 1900
Lomatium martindalei
English Name:Cascade Desert-Parsley, Coast Range Lomatium
German Name:
Location:Klahane Ridge Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notices:
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Habitus of Lomatium martindalei
Klahane Ridge Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

familia:Araliaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Aralia family, Ivy family
German name:Araliengewächse

genus:Oplopanax, Miq., 1863
Notices:The genus comprises only three known species

species: Oplopanax horridus, (Sm.) Miq., 1863
Oplopanax horridus
English Name:Devil's Club
German Name:Igelkraftwurz
Location:Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:Traditionally used as medicine and as material for hunting and fishing gear
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Flower of Oplopanax horridus
Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

sub classis:Asteridae
German name:Asterngewächse
Notices:This group is rendered obsolete by the more recent APG classification scheme, which proposes the unranked clades asterids and euasterids instead

ordo:Solanales

familia:Polemoniaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Jacob's ladder family, Phlox family
German name:Sperrkrautgewächse, Himmelsleitergewächse
Notices:In the more recent APG taxonomy, the Polemoniaceae are grouped within the order Ericales

genus:Phlox, L., 1753
German name:Flammenblumen

species: Phlox diffusa, Benth., 1789
Phlox diffusa
English Name:Spreading Phlox
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:
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Flower of Phlox diffusa
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

familia:Solanaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Nightshade family
German name:Nachtschattengewächse

genus:Solanum, L., 1753
German name:Nachtschatten

species: Solanum dulcamara, L., 1753
Solanum dulcamara
English Name:European Bittersweet, Nightshade
German Name:Bittersüsser Nachtschatten, Bittersüss, Hirschkraut, Seidelbeere, Saurebe,
Location:Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:13.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:
Notices:S. dulcamara is an introduced, Eurasian species. It contains the toxic compound solanine, especially in the unripe fruits and the leaves
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Habitus of Solanum dulcamara
Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 13.06.2013

familia:Hydrophyllaceae, R. Br., 1817
English name:Waterleaf family
German name:Wasserblattgewächse
Notices:In newer classifications, this family is merged with the Boraginaceae or regarded as a sub-family of that group.

genus:Hydrophyllum, L., 1753

species: Hydrophyllum tenuipes, A. Heller, 1898
Hydrophyllum tenuipes
English Name:Pacific Waterleaf
German Name:
Location:Peabody Creek Valley, Port Angeles, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:
Notices:Note the unusual purple color of the flowers; such plants are reportedly only occurring at Port Angeles and the Hoh and Columbia river mouths [g1]
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Inflorescence of Hydrophyllum tenuipes
Peabody Creek Valley, Port Angeles, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Phacelia, Juss., 1789

species: Phacelia sericea, A. Gray, 1862
Phacelia sericea
English Name:Sky-Pilot, Silky Phacelia, Blue Alpine Phacelia
German Name:
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:
Notices:
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Inflorescence of Phacelia sericea
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

ordo:Lamiales

familia:Lamiaceae, Martinov, 1820, also Labiatae, Juss., 1789
English name:Mint family
German name:Lippenblütler
Notices:Zygomorphous (bilaterally symmetrical) flowers, stems or stalks are most often square (4-sided) in cross-section.
Most members of this family contain essential oils and therefore many species are utilized as cooking ingredients or in herbal medicine.

genus:Prunella, L., 1753
English name:Self-Heals, Heal-All
German name:Braunellen

species: Prunella vulgaris, L., 1753
Prunella vulgaris
English Name:Common Self-Heal, Heal-All
German Name:Kleine Braunelle
Location:Black Diamond Road, Port Angeles, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to September
Notices:
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Inflorescence of Prunella vulgaris
Black Diamond Road, Port Angeles, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

genus:Stachys, L., 1753
English name:Heal-All, Self-Heal, Woundwort, Betony, Lamb's Ears, Hedgenettle
German name:Zieste

species: Stachys cooleyae, A. Heller, 1899
Stachys cooleyae
English Name:Cooley's Hedge-Nettle
German Name:
Location:Black Diamond Road, Port Angeles, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Flower of Stachys cooleyae
Black Diamond Road, Port Angeles, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

ordo:Scrophulariales

familia:Scrophulariaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Figwort family
German name:Rachenblütler

genus:Penstemon, Schmidel, 1763
English name:Beardtongues
German name:Bartfaden
Notices:In more recent taxonomies the genus Penstemon is re-classified and belongs now to family of the Plantaginaceae

species: Penstemon davidsonii, Greene, 1892
Penstemon davidsonii
English Name:Davidson's Penstemon, Davidson's Beardtongue, Timberline Penstemon
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Flower of Penstemon davidsonii
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Castilleja, Mutis ex L. f., 1782
English name:Paintbrush
Notices:In more recent taxonomies the genus Castilleja was re-classified and belongs now to the family of the Orobanchaceae.
Species of Castilleja can be quite polymorphous, especially C. hispida and C. rupicola appear to be very similar and hard to distinguish.
Thus, the species depicted below might be different, but could also belong to either one of the two species.
The classification made here is based on the observation, that the lateral lobes of the leaves in C. hispida appear to be much narrower than in C. rupicola

species: * Castilleja hispida, Benth., 1838
Castilleja hispida
English Name:Harsh Paintbrush
German Name:
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to August
Notices:
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Inflorescence of Castilleja hispida
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: * Castilleja rupicola, Piper, 1898
Castilleja rupicola
English Name:Cliff Paintbrush
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Habitus of Castilleja rupicola
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Mimulus, L., 1753
English name:Monkey-Flowers and Musk-Flowers
German name:Gauklerblumen
Notices:More recent taxonomies have re-classified the Mimulus genus and placed it in the newly created family Phyrmaceae.
The Herbarium of the University of Washington at the Burke Museum [w03] follows a work of Barker et al. (2012) and
recognizes this genus as Erythranthe within the family of the Phyrmaceae

species: Mimulus lewisii, Pursh, 1813
Mimulus lewisii
English Name:Pink Monkey-Flower, Lewis' Monkeyflower, Great Purple Monkeyflower
German Name:Klebrige Gauklerblume
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:08.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:Both species of Mimulus (M. lewisii and M. gutattus) were found growing side-by-side on a river bank. The WTU Image Collection [w03] recognizes this species as Erythranthe lewisii, (Pursh) G.L. Nesom & N.S. Fraga, 2012, but the name Mimulus lewisii is still regarded as a valid synonym.
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Flower of Mimulus lewisii
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

species: Mimulus guttatus, DC., 1813
Mimulus guttatus
English Name:Yellow Monkey-Flower
German Name:Gelbe Gauklerblume
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:08.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to September
Notices:Both species of Mimulus (M. lewisii and M. gutattus) were found growing side-by-side on a river bank. The WTU Image Collection [w03] recognizes this species as Erythranthe guttata, (Fisch. ex DC.) G.L. Nesom, 2012, but the name Mimulus guttatus is still regarded as a valid synonym.
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Flower of Mimulus lewisii
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

ordo:Dipsacales

familia:Caprifoliaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Honeysuckle family
German name:Geissblattgewächse

genus:Lonicera, L., 1753
English name:Honeysuckle
German name:Heckenkirschen, Geissblätter

species: Lonicera ciliosa, (Pursh) Poir. ex DC., 1830
Lonicera ciliosa
English Name:Western Trumpet Honeysuckle, Orange Honeysuckle
German Name:
Location:Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:13.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:
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Inflorescence of Lonicera ciliosa
Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 13.06.2013

species: Lonicera involucrata, (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., 1824
Lonicera involucrata
English Name:Black Twinberry, Bearberry, Twinberry Honeysuckle
German Name:
Location:English Bay, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:20.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to August
Notices:
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Flowers of Lonicera involucrata
English Bay, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 20.06.2013

genus:Linnaea, L., 1753
Notices:Monotypic genus, containing only one species: Linnaea borealis

species: Linnaea borealis, L., 1753
Linnaea borealis
English Name:Twinflower
German Name: Moosglöckchen, Erdglöckchen
Location:Peabody Creek Valley, Port Angeles, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notices:
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Flower of Linnaea borealis
Peabody Creek Valley, Port Angeles, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

ordo:Asterales

familia:Campanulaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Bellflower family
German name:Glockenblumen

genus:Campanula, L., 1753
English name:Bellflower
German name:Glockenblumen

species: Campanula scouleri, Hook. ex A. DC., 1830
Campanula scouleri
English Name:Scouler's Harebell
German Name:
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:08.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notices:
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Flower of Campanula scouleri
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 08.07.2013

familia:Asteraceae, Bercht. & J. Presl., 1820, formerly Compositae
English name:Aster, Daisy or Sunflower family
German name:Köpfchen- oder Körbchenblütler
Notices:Largest group of dicotyl plants with more than 21000 known species and a cosmopolitan distribution.
The group contains many economically important species, which are utilized as food crops, like sunflowers (Helianthus), lettuce (Lactuca), artichoke (Cynara),
medicinal herbs or as garden ornamentals

subfamilia:Cichorioidae, formerly Liguliflorae
German name:"Zungenblütler"
Notices:The Cichorioidae form together with the Asteroideae the two important sub-families of the Asteraceae,
but in more recent taxonomies the Cichorioidae subfamily is deprecated and split into several groups

subfamilia:Asteroideae, formerly Tubuliflorae
German name:"Röhrenblütler"
Notices:The Asteroideae form together with the Cichorioidae the two important sub-families of the Asteraceae

genus:Aster
Notices:In more recent taxonomies the genus Aster was completely re-ordered and does now not include any American species

species: * Aster foliaceus, Lindl. ex DC., 1836
Aster foliaceus
English Name:Alpine Leafbract Aster, Leafy Aster
German Name:
Location:North Fork Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:10.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to September
Notices:This species is now recognized as Symphyotrichum foliaceus, (Lindl. ex DC.) G.L. Nesom, 1995.
There are several quite similar species to A. foliaceus, so that the plant shown here was not safely identified.
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Flower of Aster foliaceus
North Fork Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 10.07.2013



classis:Monocotyledonae
Notices:In the field, many monocots can be recognized by their parallel leaf veins, which is one several important characteristics of this group

sub classis:Arecidae

ordo:Arales
Notices:In more recent taxonomies, like the APG scheme, the Arales order is collapsed and the families contained within are re-ordered and placed in other groups.

familia:Araceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Arum or Calla-Lily family
German name:Aronstabgewächse
Notices:In more recent taxonomies the Araceae family is placed within the order of the Alismatales.

genus:Lysichiton, Schott, 1857
English name:Skunk Cabbage
German name:Scheinkalla, Riesenaronstab, Stinkkohl, Stinktierkohl
Notices:This genus comprises only two species: the Western Skunk Cabbage L. americanus and another species growing on the Eastern Pacific L. camtschatcensis.

species: Lysichiton americanus, Hultén & H.St.John, 1931
Lysichiton americanus
English Name:Western Skunk Cabbage, Yellow Skunk Cabbage, Swamp Lantern
German Name:Amerikanischer Stinktierkohl, Gelbe Scheinkalla, Amerikanischer Riesenaronstab
Location:Lynn Creek Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Date:18.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notices:The plant emits an unpleasant odor when in bloom.
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Ripening Spadix of Lysichiton americanus
Lynn Creek Valley, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 18.07.13

sub classis:Liliidae

ordo:Liliales

familia:Liliaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Lily family
German name:Liliengewächse
Notices:Flowers often developed as perigon

genus:Lilium, L., 1753
English name:Lilies
German name:Lilien

species: Lilium columbianum, Hort. & Hanson ex Baker
Lilium columbianum
English Name:Tiger Lily
German Name:
Location:Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:
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Flower of Lilium columbianum
Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 28.06.2013

genus:Erythronium, L., 1753
English name:Fawn Lily, Trout Lily, Dog's-tooth Violet, Adder's Tongue
German name:Zahnlilien

species: Erythronium grandiflorum, Pursh, 1813
Erythronium grandiflorum
English Name:Yellow Glacier Lily, Dogtooth Lily, Yellow Avalanche Lily
German Name:Großblütiger Hundszahn
Location:Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:The tepals are usually strongly recurved (see image 1), but appear to be bent forward when it is raining (see image 2)
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Flower of Erythronium grandiflorum
Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: Erythronium montanum, S. Watson, 1891
Erythronium montanum
English Name:Avalanche Lily, Glacier Lily
German Name:
Location:Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:The tepals are usually recurved, but appear bent forward when it rains
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Flower of Erythronium montanum
Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

genus:Fritillaria, L., 1753
English name:Fritillaries
German name:Schachblumen

species: Fritillaria affinis, (Schult. & Schult. f.), Sealy, 1980
Fritillaria affinis
English Name:Chocolate Lily, Checker Lily, Mission Bells
German Name:Sprenkel-Schachblume
Location:Klahane Ridge Switchback Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notices:This plant was formerly known as Fritillaria lanceolata, Pursh, 1813, which is still a valid synonym, e.g. used in Pojar et al. [g1]
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Flower of Fritillaria affinis
Klahane Ridge Switchback Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Clintonia, Raf., 1818
English name:Bead Lilies
Notices:According to the International Plant Names Index [w10], this genus belongs to the family of the Convallariaceae (Aug. 2013)

species: Clintonia uniflora, (Menzies ex Schult. f. & Schult.) Kunth
Clintonia uniflora
English Name:Queen's Cup, Bride's Bonnet
German Name:
Location:Heart O the Hills, Port Angeles, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:produces a single, dark blue berry as its fruit
Bloom:June to July
Notices:
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Flower of Clintonia uniflora
Heart O the Hills, Port Angeles, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Prosartes, D. Don, 1839
German name:Elfenglöckchen
Notices:Many species of this genus were formerly classified under the genus Disporum, Salisb., 1812, as a member of the Convallariaceae family

species: Prosartes hookeri, Torr.
Prosartes hookeri
English Name:Hooker's Fairybells
German Name:
Location:Barnes Creek, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:
Notices:Fruits are edible, but not regarded as especially palatable. This species was formerly known as Disporum hookeri, Britton, 1888 and is as such referred to in Pojar et al. [g1]
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Flower of Prosartes hookeri
Barnes Creek, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

genus:Streptopus, Michx., 1803
English name:Twistedstalks
German name:Knotenfuss

species: Streptopus lanceolatus, (Aiton) Reveal, 1993
Streptopus lanceolatus
English Name:Rosy Twistedstalk, Rosybells, Rose Mandarin, Scootberry, Liverberry, Rose-Bellwort, Simple Stemmed Twistedstalk
German Name:
Location:Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:This plant was formerly known as Streptopus roseus, Michx., 1813, which is still a valid synonym, e.g. used in Pojar et al. [g1]
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Flower of Streptopus lanceolatus
Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

familia:Melanthiaceae, Batsch ex Borkh., 1797
German name:Germergewächse, Schwarzblütengewächse
Notices:Quite disputed family, with most of its members formerly placed within the Liliaceae;
this family is for example not recognized in Pojar et al. [g1]

genus:Veratrum, L., 1753
English name:False Hellebores, Corn Lilies
German name:Germer
Notices:All species in this genus are known to contain alkaloids, some of them are highly poisonous.

species: Veratrum viride, Aiton, 1789
Veratrum viride
English Name:Indian Hellebore, Green False Hellebore, Corn Lily, Indian Poke
German Name:
Location:Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:Habitus: perennial plant with unbranched stems, 0.7 - 2.0 m tall
Leaves: broad, oblong to elliptic, 10-35 cm long, clasping at base, pointed at tip, markedly ribbed, underside with hairs
Flowers: inflorescence as panicle with numerous flowers in branched, terminal clusters, 30-70 cm tall; flowers star-shaped, 5-12 mm long, as perigon with 6 stamina and 3 pistills, tepals pale-green to yellowish with dark-green center
Fruits: Oblong or oval capsules, straw-coloured to dark-brown, flatted, winged, brown seeds
Bloom:June to August
Notices:Due to the various alkaloids it contains, V. viride is regarded one of the most poisonous plants of the Northwest. The toxins accumulate during the growth and flowering period (especially in the roots), while during the dormant period most of the alkaloids are decomposed. American Natives traditionally collected the plant during this period of dormancy and used it as medicine.
There two recognized varieties of this species: One is known as V. viride var. viride and grows in Eastern North America, while V. viride var. eschscholzianum grows in Western North America. The branches of the inflorescence of the Western variety are drooping, while the Eastern variety has erect branches.
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Shoots of Veratrum viride
Barnes Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

genus:Anticlea, Kunth, 1843

species: Anticlea occidentalis, (A. Gray), Zomlefer & Judd, 2001
Anticlea occidentalis
English Name:Mountainbells, Western Featherbells, Mission Bells, Bronze Bells
German Name:
Location:Elwha River Valley, Low Divide, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:09.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:A synonym for this species is Stenanthium occidentale, A. Gray, 1873, which was placed within the Liliaceae; this name and classification is for example used by Pojar et al. [g1]
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Inflorescence of Anticlea occidentalis
Elwha River Valley, Low Divide, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 09.07.2013

genus:Trillium, L., 1753
English name:Trillium, Wakerobin, Tri Flower, Birthroot, Birthwort
German name:Waldlilien
Notices:The taxonomic classification of this genus appears to be quite controversial:
Pojar et al. [g1] place the genus within the Liliaceae,
the WTU Image Collection [w03] classifies Trillium as member of the Melanthiaceae,
while the International Plants Name Index [w10] lists it within its own family, the Trilliaceae

species: Trillium ovatum, Pursh, 1813
Trillium ovatum
English Name:Western Trillium, Western Wake Robin, Pacific Trillium
German Name:Westliche Dreizipfellilie
Location:Little River, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to July
Notices:Seeds are equipped with oil-rich appendages (elaiosomes), which facilitate the dispersal by ants
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Flower of Trillium ovatum
Little River, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Xerophyllum, Michx., 1803
Notices:This genus comprises only of two known species and was formerly classified within the family of the Liliaceae

species: Xerophyllum tenax, (Pursh) Nutt., 1818
Xerophyllum tenax
English Name:Bear-Grass, Western Turkeybeard
German Name:Bärengras
Location:Aurora Ridge, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to August
Notices:The leaves were traditionally used by Native Americans as material for weaving various goods, like baskets, hats or capes.
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Inflorescence of Xerophyllum tenax
Aurora Ridge, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

ordo:Asparagales
Notices:The order Asparagales was introduced quite recently and is not present in the Cronquist system.
Most members of this order were formerly classified within the order of the Liliales.


familia:Asparagaceae, Juss., 1789
German name:Spargelgewächse

genus:Maianthemum, F.H. Wigg., 1780
German name:Schattenblumen, Schattenblümchen
Notices:The classification of this genus appears quite disputed and has recently changed several times:
In the WTU Image Collection [w03] this genus is placed under the family of the Asparagaceae,
while in the International Plants Name Index [w10] the genus is listed within the Convallariaceae family.
In both classifications this genus includes now the former genus Smilacina, Desf., 1807,
a genus recognized as a member of the Liliaceae family, which is also used by Pojar et al. [g1]

species: Maianthemum racemosum, (L.), Link, 1821
Maianthemum racemosum
English Name:False Salomon's Seal, Feathery False Lily-of-the-valley, Plumed solomon's seal, Plumed spikenard
German Name:
Location:Little River, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notices:Fruits are edible, but not regarded as especially palatable.
This species was formerly known as Smilacina racemosa, Desf., 1807,
which is still a valid synonym, for example used by Pojar et al. [g1].
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Inflorescence of Maianthemum racemosum
Little River, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: Maianthemum stellatum, (L.), Link, 1821
Maianthemum stellatum
English Name:Star-Flowered False Salomon's Seal
German Name:
Location:Little River, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:The fruits are edible, but not regarded as especially palatable.
This species was formerly known as Smilacina stellata, Desf., 1807,
which is still a valid synonym, for example used by Pojar et al. [g1]
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Inflorescence of Maianthemum stellatum
Little River, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

subfamilia:Brodiaeoideae, Traub, 1972
Notices:Comprises 12 genera, native to Western North America and Central America. This sub-family was once recognized as a family of its own, named Themidaceae

genus:Dichelostemma, Kunth, 1843
Notices:This genus is quite disputed and has changed frequently:
The International Plants Name Index [w10] lists this genus as member of the Alliaceae family,
in former taxonomies Dichelostemma was recognized as genus Brodiaea and placed within the Liliaceae family.

species: Dichelostemma congestum, Kunth, 1843
Dichelostemma congestum
English Name:Ookow, Fork-Toothed Ookow, Northern Saitas
German Name:
Location:Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to June
Notices:A synonymous name for this species is Brodiaea congesta, Sm., 1810
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Inflorescence of Dichelostemma congestum
Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 28.06.2013

familia:Amaryllidaceae, J. St.-Hil., 1805
English name:Amaryllis family
German name:Narzissengewächse
Notices:Herbaceous, perennial and bulbous plants

genus:Allium, L., 1753
English name:Onions
German name:Lauch
Notices:According to the International Plants Name Index this genus is placed within its own family, named Alliaceae.
It contains many important species, which are widely deployed as food.

species: Allium crenulatum, Wiegand, 1899
Allium crenulatum
English Name:Olympic onion, Scalloped Onion
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:May to July
Notices:
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Flower of Allium crenulatum
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

familia:Iridaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Iris family
German name:Schwertliliengewächse

genus:Sisyrinchium, L., 1753
English name:Blue-eyed Grasses
German name:Grasschwertel

species: Sisyrinchium idahoense, E.P. Bicknell, 1899
Sisyrinchium idahoense
English Name:Idaho Blue-Eyed-Grass
German Name:
Location:Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notices:
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Flower of Sisyrinchium idahoense
Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 28.06.2013

ordo:Orchidales

familia:Orchidaceae, Juss., 1789
English name:Orchids
German name:Orchideen
Notices:The largest group within the monocots and possibly of all plants, with more than 23000 known species

genus:Calypso, Salisb., 1807
English name:Fairy Slipper, Venus's Slipper
German name:Norne
Notices:Monotypic genus with only one known species, Calypso bulbosa

species: Calypso bulbosa, (L.) Oakes, 1842
Calypso bulbosa
English Name:Fairyslipper, Venus's Slipper
German Name:Norne
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:March to June
Notices:
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Flower of Calypso bulbosa
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus: Corallorhiza, Gagnebin, 1755
English name:Coralroot orchids
German name:Korallenwurzen
Notices:Corallorhiza species are named for their coral shaped roots.
Most species produce little or no chlorophyll and rely entirely on soil fungi for their nutrition (mycoheterotrophy),
thus often parasitizing on the mycelia of fungi which live in symbiotic relationship (mycorrhiza) with the roots of other plants (e.g. conifers)

species: Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf., 1817
English Name:Spotted Coralroot
Notices:Mycoheterotrophic plant without chlorophyll. For this species several variations and forms are described, of which some were identified in the Olympic Mountains as listed below.
The WTU Image Collection [w03] and the Washington Native Orchid society [w06] recognizes a variation called Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata, which is not known by the International Plants Name Index [w10]

species: Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf., 1817 f. rubra, P.M. Br., 1995
Corallorhiza maculata forma rubra
English Name:Spotted Coralroot
German Name:
Location:Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:28.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to September
Notices:According to the 'Native orchids of Washington' website [w06] two color variations are recognized: forma rubra and forma flavida, the plant depicted here appears to be of forma rubra; this variation is described as Corallorhiza maculata spp. maculata by Pojar et al. [g1]
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Flower of Corallorhiza maculata f. rubra
Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis, (Lindl.) W.J. Schrenk, 1977
Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis forma punicea
English Name:Western Spotted Coralroot
German Name:
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notices:According to the 'Native orchids of Washington' website [w06] four color variations are described: forma aurea, forma immaculata, forma intermedia and forma punicea, the species depicted here appears to be of forma punicea
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Inflorescence of Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis, (Lindl.) W.J. Schrenk, 1977
Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis forma aurea
English Name:Western Spotted Coralroot
German Name:
Location:Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:April to July
Notices:According to the 'Native orchids of Washington' website [w06] four color variations are described: forma aurea, forma immaculata, forma intermedia and forma punicea, the plant depicted here appears to be of forma aurea
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Flower of Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
Elwha River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: Corallorhiza maculata var. ozettensis, Tisch, 2001
Corallorhiza maculata var. ozettensis
English Name:Ozette Coralroot
German Name:
Location:Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:late June to July
Notices:This species is described as Corallorhiza maculata spp. mertensiana by Pojar et al. [g1]. This endemic species was only quite recently described (Tisch 2001) and is rarely encountered, so that not many photographs do exist. For that reason, some of the images shown here were also submitted to the WTU Image collection [w03]
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Flower of Corallorhiza maculata var. ozettensis
Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

species: Corallorhiza mertensiana, Bong., 1832
English Name:Pacific Coralroot, Western Coralroot
Notices:Mycoheterotrophic plants without chlorophyll.
This orchid appears to be highly polymorphic, exhibiting different coloration and varying patterns of flower forms.
Especially, the lowermost sepal called the lip (labellum) shows a high variation in color patterns.
According to the 'Native orchids of Washington' website [w06] two color variations are described:
forma albolabia, P.M. Br., 1995 and forma pallida, P.M. Br., 1995.
The forma pallida was frequently encountered in the Olympic Mountains as depicted below

species: Corallorhiza mertensiana, Bong. f. pallida, P.M. Br., 1995
Corallorhiza mertensiana
English Name:Pacific Coralroot, Western Coralroot
German Name:
Location:Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to July
Notices:According to the 'Native orchids of Washington' website [w06] two color variations are described: forma albolabia and forma pallida, the plants depicted here appears to be of the forma pallida;
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Flower of Corallorhiza mertensiana
Lake Angeles Trail, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

species: Corallorhiza mertensiana, Bong.
Corallorhiza mertensiana
English Name:Pacific Coralroot, Western Coralroot
German Name:
Location:Aurora Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:06.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to July
Notices:Although the depicted species fits well to the general description of the forma albolabia, it lacks the pure white lip, so it might be an additional, yet undescribed color variation or a hybrid form.
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Flower of Corallorhiza mertensiana
Aurora Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

genus:Listera, R. Br., 1813
English name:Twayblades
German name:Zweiblatt

species: Listera caurina, Piper, 1898
Listera caurina
English Name:Northwestern Twayblade
German Name:
Location:Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to September
Notices:
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Flower of Listera caurina
Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: Listera cordata, R. Br., 1813
Listera cordata
English Name:Western Heartleaf Twayblade, Mannikin Twayblade
German Name:
Location:Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to July
Notices:
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Wilted inflorescence of Listera cordata
Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

genus:Goodyera, R. Br., 1813
English name:Lady's Tresses, Rattlesnake Plantain
German name:Netzblatt
Notices:The name 'Rattlesnake Plantain' is particularly used for the 4 species native to North-America, while the name 'Lady's Tresses' is also used for the species of the related Spiranthes genus.

species: Goodyera oblongifolia, Raf., 1833
Goodyera oblongifolia
English Name:Menzies' Rattlesnake Plantain, Giant Rattlesnake Plantain, Western Rattlesnake Plantain, Green-Leaf Rattlesnake-Plantain
German Name:
Location:Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:25.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:July to August
Notices:
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Habitus of Goodyera oblongifolia
Peabody Creek Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 25.06.2013

genus:Piperia, Rydb., 1901
English name:Rein Orchids

species: Piperia unalascensis, (Spreng.) Rydb., 1901
Piperia unalascensis
English Name:Alaska Rein-Orchid, Slender-Spire Orchid, Alaska Piperia
German Name:
Location:Mt. Storm King, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:03.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Inflorescence of Piperia unalascensis
Mt. Storm King, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 06.07.2013

genus:Platanthera, Rich., 1817
German name:Waldhyazinthen
Notices:The two species of this genus shown here cannot be regarded as safely identified. The images consist of 3 different groups of plants and probably some or all of them should be classified as Platanthera stricta.
Unfortunately, at the time I found these plants, I didn't know by which characteristics these species are distinguished:
An important marker is the spur of the flower, species of P. stricta do have inflated, clavate spurs, while the spurs of P. aquilonis are much more cylindrical and are also described as being curved downwards.
When comparing the images below with other photographs of these two species, e.g. found in WTU Image collection [w03] or at the 'Wildflowers of The Pacific Northwest' website [w05] it becomes obvious, that on the images over here an markedly inflated spur is not present. Thus, at first all plants were characterized as P. aquilonis. Another complication arises from the fact that the flowers can be facing downward or standing upright, sometimes even within a single inflorescence.
It seems to be therefore difficult to decide if the spur is bent downward, when the flower itself is bent forward and subsequently the spur is in a horizontal position...

species: * Platanthera aquilonis, Sheviak, 1999
Platanthera aquilonis
English Name:Northern Green Bog Orchid, Green-Flowered Bog-Orchid
German Name:
Location:Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:30.06.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Flower of Platanthera aquilonis
Little River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 30.06.2013

species: * Platanthera stricta, Lindl., 1835
Platanthera stricta
English Name:Slender Bog Orchid, Slender Rein-Orchid
German Name:
Location:North Fork Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA
Date:09.07.2013
Description:
Bloom:June to August
Notices:
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Flower of Platanthera stricta
North Fork Quinault River Valley, Olympic National Park, WA, USA, 09.07.2013



Authors and corresponding publications of botanical names: * see notice

Aiton - William Aiton 1731-1793
Veratrum viride - 'Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew.', (Hortus Kew.), London, 3:422, 1789

Andrews - Henry Charles Andrews, 1794-1830

Baker - John Gilbert Baker, 1834-1920
Lilium columbianum - 'Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany.', (Journ. Linn. Soc.), London, 14:243, 1874

Banks - Joseph Banks, 1743-1820

Barton - Benjamin Smith Barton, 1766-1815; 1803

W. Bart. - William Bartram, 1739–1823,

W.P.C. Barton - William Paul Crillon Barton, 1786-1856

Batsch - August Johann Georg Karl Batsch, 1761-1802
Violaceae - 'Tabula Affinitatum Regni Vegetabilis', (Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.), 57, 1802

Benth. - George Bentham, 1800-1884
Phlox diffusa - 'Plantas Hartwegianas imprimis Mexicanas...', (Pl. Hartw.), Londini [London], 325(-326), 1849
Castilleja hispida - 'Flora Boreali-Americana; or, the botany of the northern parts of British America...', (Fl. Bor.-Amer.), [Hooker], 2:105, 1838

Bercht. - Bedřich (Friedrich) Všemír (Wssemjr) von Berchtold, 1781-1876
Cornaceae, J. Presl & Bercht., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednanj o ziwobitj rostlin...', (Prir. Rostlin), 2(23*):91/92, 1825
Asteraceae, J. Presl & Bercht., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednanj o ziwobitj rostlin...', (Prir. Rostlin), 254, 1820

Bernh. - Johann Jakob Bernhardi, 1774-1850
Dicentra, nom. cons. - 'Linnaea; Ein Journal für die Botanik in ihrem ganzen Umfange', (Linnaea), Berlin, 8:457, 468, 1833

E.P. Bicknell - Eugene Pintard Bicknell, 1859-1925
Sisyrinchium idahoense - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), New York, USA, 445, 1899

Bong. - August Gustav Heinrich von Bongard, 1786-1839
Corallorhiza mertensiana - 'Mémoires de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg. Sixieme Serie. Sciences Mathematiques, Physiques et Naturelles', (Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math.), 2:165, 1832

Borkh. - Moritz (Moriz) Balthasar Borkhausen, 1760-1806
Primulaceae, nom. cons. - 'Botanisches Wörterbuch: oder, Versuch einer Erklärung der vornehmsten Begriffe und Kunstwörter in der Botanick.', (Bot. Wörterb.), Giessen, 2:240, 1797
Melanthiaceae, nom. cons. - 'Botanisches Wörterbuch: oder, Versuch einer Erklärung der vornehmsten Begriffe und Kunstwörter in der Botanick.', (Bot. Wörterb.), Giessen, 2:8, 1797

P.M. Br. - Paul Martin Brown
Corallorhiza maculata f. rubra - 'North American Native Orchid Journal.', (N. Amer. Native Orchid J.), Brighton, MA, USA, 1(1):8-9, 1995
Corallorhiza mertensiana f. albolabia - 'North American Native Orchid Journal.', (N. Amer. Native Orchid J.), Brighton, MA, USA, 1(1):9, 1995
Corallorhiza mertensiana f. pallida - 'North American Native Orchid Journal.', (N. Amer. Native Orchid J.), Brighton, MA, USA, 1(3):197, 1995

R. Br. - Robert Brown, 1773-1858
Pyrola menziesii, the basionym of Chimaphila menziesii - 'Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society', (Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc.), Edinburgh, 5:245, 1824
Goodyera - 'Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. London', (Hortus Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], ed. 2, 5:197, 1813
Hydrophyllaceae, nom. cons. - 'Botanical Register; Consisting of Coloured Figures of Exotic Plants Cultivated in British Gardens; with their History and Mode of Treatment.', (Bot. Reg.), London, 3:ad t. 242, 1817
Listera - 'Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. London', (Hortus Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], ed. 2, 5:201, 1813
Listera cordata - 'Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. London', (Hortus Kew.) [W.T. Aiton], ed. 2, 5:201, 1813
Oxalidaceae, nom. cons. - 'Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire, usually called the Congo in South Africa, in 1816, Under the Direction of Captain J. K. [sic, for H.] Tuckey, R.N. To Which is Added the Journal of Professor Smith...', (Narr. Exped. Zaire), London, 433, 1818

Britton - Nathaniel Lord Britton, 1859-1934
Disporum hookeri - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. New York', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), New York, USA, 15:188, 1888

Burnett - Gilbert Thomas Burnett, 1800-1835
Brassicaceae, nom. cons. - 'Outlines of Botany.', (Outlines Bot.), London, 854/1093/1123, 1835

Cham. - Ludolf Karl Adelbert von Chamisso, 1781-1838
Rubus ursinus, Cham. & Schltdl. - 'Linnaea; Ein Journal für die Botanik in ihrem ganzen Umfange.', (Linnaea), Berlin, 2(1):11, 1827

J.M. Coult. - John Merle Coulter, 1851-1928
Lomatium martindalei, J.M. Coult. & Rose - 'Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Smithsonian Institution', (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb.), 7:225, 1900

A. DC. - Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyramus de Candolle, 1806-1893
Campanula scouleri - 'Monographie des Campanulees...avec Vingt Planches', (Monogr. Campan.), 312, 1830

DC. - Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, 1778-1841
Aster foliaceus - 'Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis...', (Prodr.), [A. P. de Candolle], 5:228, 1836
Achlys - 'Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale, sive Ordines, Genera et Species Plantarum Secundum Methodi Naturalis Normas Digestarum et Descriptarum.', (Syst. Nat.), [Candolle], 2:35, 1821
Achlys triphylla - 'Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale, sive Ordines, Genera et Species Plantarum Secundum Methodi Naturalis Normas Digestarum et Descriptarum.', (Syst. Nat.), [Candolle], 2:35, 1821
Aquilegia formosa - 'Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis...', (Prodr.), [A. P. de Candolle], 1:50, 1824
Caltha leptosepala - 'Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale, sive Ordines, Genera et Species Plantarum Secundum Methodi Naturalis Normas Digestarum et Descriptarum.', (Syst. Nat.), [Candolle], Paris, 1:310, 1817
Lonicera ciliosa - 'Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis...', (Prodr.), [A. P. de Candolle], 4:333, 1830
Mimulus guttatus - 'Catalogus Plantarum Horti Botanici Monspeliensis', (Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp.), 127, 1813

Desf. - René Louiche Desfontaines, 1750-1833
Smilacina, nom. cons. - 'Annales du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.', (Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.), Paris, 9:51, 1807
Smilacina racemosa, nom. cons. - 'Annales du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.', (Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.), Paris, 9:51, 1807
Smilacina stellata, nom. cons. - 'Annales du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.', (Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.), Paris, 9:52, 1807

D. Don - David Don, 1799-1841
Pyrola menziesii, the basionym of Chimaphila menziesii - 'Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society', (Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc.), Edinburgh, 5:245, 1824
Prosartes - 'Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London', (Proc. Linn. Soc.), 1:48, 1839

Douglas - David Douglas, 1799-1834

Fisch. - Friedrich Ernst Ludwig (Fedor Bogdanovic) von Fischer, 1782-1854
Trautvetteria, Fisch. & C.A. Mey. - 'Linnaea; Ein Journal für die Botanik in ihrem ganzen Umfange', (Linnaea), Berlin, 10(Lit.):82, 1836

Fraga. - Naomi S. Fraga
Erythranthe lewisii, G.L. Nesom & N.S. Fraga - 'Phytoneuron. Digital Publications in Plant Biology', (Phytoneuron), 2012-39:36, 2012

Gagnebin - Abraham Gagnebin (de la Ferrière), 1707-1800
Corallorhiza nom. et. orth. c - 'Acta Helvetica, Physico-Mathematico-Anatomico-Botanico-Medica', (Acta Helv. Phys.-Math.), Basel, 2:61, 1755

Geyer - Carl (Charles) Andreas Geyer, 1809-1853

A. Gray - Asa Gray, 1810-1888
Allotropa, Torr. & A. Gray - 'Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Description of the Mosses and Liverworts',
(Pacif. Railr. Rep.), [Williamson & Abbot], 6(3, Nos. 1-2), 81, 1858
Allotropa virgata, Torr. & A. Gray - 'Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Description of the Mosses and Liverworts',
(Pacif. Railr. Rep.), [Williamson & Abbot], 6(3, Nos. 1-2), 80, footnote (-81, footnote), 1858
Douglasia laevigata - 'Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.', (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts), Boston, MA, USA, 16:105, 1880
Hemitomes - 'Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Description of the Mosses and Liverworts',
(Pacif. Railr. Rep.), [Williamson & Abbot], 6(3, Nos. 1-2), 80, t.12, 1858
Hemitomes congestum - 'Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Description of the Mosses and Liverworts',
(Pacif. Railr. Rep.), [Williamson & Abbot], 6(3, Nos. 1-2), 80, t.81, 1858
Moneses uniflora - 'Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, from New England to Wisconsin and South to Ohio and Pennsylvania Inclusive', 273, 1848
Oxalis oregana, Torr. & A. Gray - 'Flora of North America, A',
(Fl. N. Amer.), [Torrey & A. Gray], 1:211, 1838
Phacelia sericea - '', (Amer. J. Sci. Ser. II), 34:254, 1862
Stenanthium occidentale - 'Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.', (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts), Boston, MA, USA, 8:405, 1873
Thalictrum occidentale - 'Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.', (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts), Boston, MA, USA, 7:372, 1872

Gray - Samuel Frederick Gray, 1766-1828
Moneses - 'Natural Arrangement of British Plants, According to Their Relation to Each Other, as Pointed Out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown &c.', (Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl.), London, 2:396, 403, 1821

Greene - Edward Lee Greene, 1843-1915
Delphinium glareosum - 'Pittonia; a Series of Papers Relating to Botany and Botanists.', (Pittonia), Berkeley, CA, USA, 3:257, 1898
Penstemon davidsonii - 'Pittonia; a Series of Papers Relating to Botany and Botanists.', (Pittonia), Berkeley, CA, USA, 2:241, 1892

Haeckel - Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, 1834-1919

Hanson - Peter Hanson, 1824-1887

A. Heller - Amos Arthur Heller, 1867-1944
Hydrophyllum tenuipes - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), New York, 25:582, 1898
Stachys cooleyae - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), New York, 26:590, 1899

J. St.-Hil. - Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1772-1845
Amaryllidaceae, nom. cons. - 'Exposition des Familles Naturelles...Paris (chez Treuttel et Würtz, ...), Strasbourg (meme Maison de Commerce)', (Expos. Fam. Nat.), 1:134, 1805

Holz. - John Michael Holzinger, 1853-1929
Viola orbiculata - 'Contributions from the United States National Herbarium.', (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb.), Smithsonian Institution, 3(4):214(-215), 1895

Hook. - William Jackson Hooker, 1785-1865
Trientalis latifolia - 'Flora Boreali-Americana; or, the botany of the northern parts of British America...', (Fl. Bor.-Amer.), [Hooker], 2:121, 1838

Hort. - Hortulanorum, meaning 'of gardeners'

House - Homer Doliver House, 1878-1949
Orthilia secunda - 'American Midland Naturalist; devoted to natural history, primarily that of the prairie states', (Amer. Midl. Naturalist), 7(4-5):134, 1921

Hultéen - Oskar Eric Gunnar Hultén, 1894-1981
Lysichiton americanus, Hultén & H.St.John - 'Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift Utgifven af Svenska Botaniska Foreningen.', (Svensk Bot. Tidskr.), Stockholm, 25:455, fig. 1,2, pl. 4., 1931

Judd - Walter Stephen Judd, 1951-
Anticlea occidentalis, Zomlefer & Judd - 'Novon; a Journal for Botanical Nomenclature.', (Novon), St. Louis, MO, USA, 12(2):303, 2001

Juss. - Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, 1748-1836
Araliaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 40, 1789
Aristolochiaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 72, 1789
Asparagaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 217, 1789
Berberidaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 286, 1789
Campanulaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 163, 1789
Caryophyllaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 299, 1789
Caprifoliaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 210, 1789
Ericaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 159, 1789
Geraniaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 268, 1789
Iridaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 57, 1789
Labiatae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 110, 1789
Liliaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 48, 1789
Orchidaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 64, 1789
Papaveraceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 235, 1789
Phacelia - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 129, 1789
Polemoniaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 136, 1789
Portulacaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 312, 1789
Ranunculaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 231, 1789
Rosaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 334, 1789
Saxifragaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 308, 1789
Scrophulariaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 117, 1789
Solanaceae, nom. cons. - Genera Plantarum (Gen. Pl.), 124, 1789

Kunth - Karl (Carl) Sigismund Kunth, 1788-1850
Anticlea - 'Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum, Secundum Familias Naturales Disposita, Adjectis Characteribus, Differntiis et Synonymis.', (Enum. Pl.), [Kunth], Stutgardiae et Tubingae [Stuttgart and Tübingen], 4:191, 1843
Dichelostemma congestum - 'Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum, Secundum Familias Naturales Disposita, Adjectis Characteribus, Differntiis et Synonymis.', (Enum. Pl.), [Kunth], Stutgardiae et Tubingae [Stuttgart and Tübingen], 4:470, 1843
Clintonia uniflora - 'Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum, Secundum Familias Naturales Disposita, Adjectis Characteribus, Differntiis et Synonymis.', (Enum. Pl.), [Kunth], Stutgardiae et Tubingae [Stuttgart and Tübingen], 5:159, 1850
Stenanthium - 'Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum, Secundum Familias Naturales Disposita, Adjectis Characteribus, Differntiis et Synonymis.', (Enum. Pl.), [Kunth], Stutgardiae et Tubingae [Stuttgart and Tübingen], 4:189, 1843

L. - Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné), 1707-1780
Actaea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:504, 1753
Allium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:294, 1753
Asarum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:442, 1753
Aquilegia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:533, 1753
Caltha - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:558, 1753
Campanula - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:163, 1753
Claytonia - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:204, 1753
Claytonia sibirica - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:204, 1753
Cornus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:117, 1753
Cornus canadensis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:118, 1753
Delphinium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:530, 1753
Dodecatheon - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:144, 1753
Erysimum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:660, 1753
Erythronium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:305, 1753
Fritillaria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:303, 1753
Gaultheria - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:395, 1753
Geranium - Genera Plantarum, ed. 5, 1754
Geranium robertianum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:681, 1753
Geum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:500, 1753
Hydrophyllum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:146, 1753
Lathyrus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:729, 1753
Lilium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:302, 1753
Linnaea - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:631, 1753
Linnaea borealis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:631, 1753
Lonicera - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:173, 1753
Mimulus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:634, 1753
Monotropa - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:387, 1753
Monotropa uniflora - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:387, 1753
Monotropa hypopitys - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:387, 1753
Oxalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:433, 1753
Phlox - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:151, 1753
Prunella - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:600, 1753
Prunella vulgaris - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:600, 1753
Pyrola - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:396, 1753
Ranunculus - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:548, 1753
Rubus, nom. cons. - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:492, 1753
Saxifraga - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:398, 1753
Saxifraga cespitosa - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:404(-405), 1753
Saxifraga bronchialis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:400, 1753
Sisyrinchium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:954, 1753
Solanum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:184, 1753
Solanum dulcamara - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:185, 1753
Stachys - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 2:580, 1753
Thalictrum - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:545, 1753
Tiarella - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:344, 1753
Tiarella trifoliata - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:406, 1753
Trientalis - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:405, 1753
Trillium - Species Plantarum (Sp. Pl.), 1:339, 1753
Veratrum - Species Plantarum, (Sp. Pl.), 2:1044, 1753
Viola - Species Plantarum, (Sp. Pl.), 2:933, 1753

L. f. - Carl von Linnaeus filius (Carl von Linné, Carl Linnaeus), 1741-1783
Castilleja - 'Supplementum Plantarum Systematis Vegetabilium Editionis Decimae Tertiae, Generum Plantarum Editiones Sextae, et Specierum Plantarum Editionis Secundae. Editum a Carolo a Linné.', (Suppl. Pl.), Brunsvigae [Braunschweig], 47, 293, 1782

Lindl. - John Lindley, 1799-1865
Apiaceae, nom. cons. - 'Natural System of Botany: or, a Systematic View of the Organisation, Natural Affinities, and Geographical Distribution, of the Whole Vegetable Kingdom; Together with the Uses of the Most Important Species in Medicine, the Arts, and Rural and Domestic Economy.', (Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.), Edition 2, London, 21, 1836
Asarum caudatum - 'Edwards's Botanical Register; or, Flower Garden and Shrubbery.', (Edwards's Bot. Reg.), London, 17:sub t.1399, 1831
Douglasia, nom. cons. - 'Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature, and the Arts.', (Quart. J. Sci. Lit. Arts), London, 24:385, 1827
Fabaceae, nom. cons. - 'Natural System of Botany: or, a Systematic View of the Organisation, Natural Affinities, and Geographical Distribution, of the Whole Vegetable Kingdom; Together with the Uses of the Most Important Species in Medicine, the Arts, and Rural and Domestic Economy.', (Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.), Edition 2, London, 148, 1836
Platanthera stricta - 'The Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants.', (Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.), London, 288, 1835

Link - Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link, 1767-1851
Maianthemum racemosum - 'Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera.', (Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt.), Berolini [Berlin], 1:343, 1821
Maianthemum stellatum - 'Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Berolinensis Altera.', (Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt.), Berolini [Berlin], 1:343, 1821

Martinov - Ivan Ivanovič Martinov (Ivan Ivanovich Martynov, Jean Martinoff), 1771-1833
Lamiaceae, nom. cons. - 'Tekhno-Botanicheskīǐ Slovar´: na latinskom i rossīǐskom i͡azykakh.', (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar), Sanktpeterburgie [St. Petersburg], 355, 1820

A.R. Mast - Austin R. Mast, 1972-
Dodecatheon jeffreyi, A.R. Mast & Reveal - 'Brittonia; a Series of Botanical Papers.', (Brittonia), New York, 59(1):81, 2007

Menzies - Archibald Menzies, 1754-1842

C. A. Mey. - Carl Anton (Andreevič) von Meyer, 1795-1855
Smelowskia - '', (Ledeb. Fl. Alt.), , 3:165, 1831
Trautvetteria, Fisch. & C.A. Mey. - 'Linnaea; Ein Journal für die Botanik in ihrem ganzen Umfange', (Linnaea), Berlin, 10(Lit.):82, 1836

Michx. - André Michaux, 1746-1802
Pyrola asarifolia - 'Flora Boreali-Americana', (Fl. Bor.-Amer.), 1:251, 1803
Streptopus - 'Flora Boreali-Americana', (Fl. Bor.-Amer.), 1:200, 1803
Streptopus roseus - 'Flora Boreali-Americana', (Fl. Bor.-Amer.), 1:201, t. 18, 1803
Xerophyllum - 'Flora Boreali-Americana', (Fl. Bor.-Amer.), 1:210, 1803

Miq. - Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel, 1811-1871
Oplopanax - 'Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi.', (Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi), Amsterdam, i. 16, 1863
Oplopanax horridus - 'Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi.', (Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi), Amsterdam, i. 16, 1863

Mutis - José Celestino Bruno Mutis (José Celestino Bruno Mutis y Bosio), 1732-1808

G.L. Nesom - Guy L. Nesom, 1945-
Erythranthe guttata - 'Phytoneuron. Digital Publications in Plant Biology', (Phytoneuron), 2012-39:43, 2012
Erythranthe lewisii, G.L. Nesom & N.S. Fraga - 'Phytoneuron. Digital Publications in Plant Biology', (Phytoneuron), 2012-39:36, 2012
Symphyotrichum foliaceus - 'Phytologia; Designed to Expedite Botanical Publication.', (Phytologia), New York, 77(3):282, 1995

Nutt. - Thomas Nuttall, 1786-1859
Mahonia - 'The Genera of North American Plants.', (Gen. N. Amer. Pl.), Philadelphia, USA , 1:211, 1818
Mahonia nervosa - 'The Genera of North American Plants.', (Gen. N. Amer. Pl.), Philadelphia, USA , 1:212, 1818
Chimaphila umbellata - 'The Genera of North American Plants.', (Gen. N. Amer. Pl.), Philadelphia, USA, 1:274, 1818
Pterospora - 'The Genera of North American Plants.', (Gen. N. Amer. Pl.), Philadelphia, USA, 1:269, 1818
Pterospora andromedea - 'The Genera of North American Plants.', (Gen. N. Amer. Pl.), Philadelphia, USA, 1:269, 1818
Rubus parviflorus - 'The Genera of North American Plants.', (Gen. N. Amer. Pl.), Philadelphia, USA, 1:308(-309), 1818
Viola glabella - 'A Flora of North America', (Fl. N. Amer.) [Torr. & A. Gray], 1:142, 1838
Xerophyllum tenax - 'The Genera of North American Plants.', (Gen. N. Amer. Pl.), Philadelphia, USA, 1:235, 1818

Oakes - William Oakes, 1799-1848
Calypso bulbosa - 'Catalogue of Vermont Plants...as published in Thompson's History of Vermont', (Cat. Vermont Pl.), 28, 1842

Piper - Charles Vancouver Piper, 1867-1926
Castilleja rupicola - 'Erythea; a Journal of Botany, West American and General.', (Erythea), Berkeley, CA, USA, 6:45, 1898
Listera caurina - 'Erythea; a Journal of Botany, West American and General.', (Erythea), Berkeley, CA, USA, 6:32, 1898
Viola flettii - 'Erythea; a Journal of Botany, West American and General.', (Erythea), Berkeley, CA, USA, 6:69, 1898

Poir. - Jean Louis Marie Poiret, 1755-1834

J. Presl - Jan Svatopluk (Swatopluk) Presl, 1791-1849
Cornaceae, J. Presl & Bercht., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednanj o ziwobitj rostlin...', (Prir. Rostlin), 2(23*):91/92, 1825
Asteraceae, J. Presl & Bercht., nom. cons. - 'O Prirozenosti Rostlin, obsahugjcj gednanj o ziwobitj rostlin...', (Prir. Rostlin), 254, 1820

Pursh - Friedrich Traugott Pursh (Pursch), 1774-1820
Chimaphila - 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America', (Fl. Amer. Sept.), 1:279, 1813
Erythronium grandiflorum - 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America', (Fl. Amer. Sept.), 1:231, 1813
Fritillaria lanceolata - 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America', (Fl. Amer. Sept.), 1:230, 1813
Gaultheria shallon - 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America', (Fl. Amer. Sept.), 1:283, t.12, 1813
Geum triflorum - 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America', (Fl. Amer. Sept.), 2:736, 1813
Mimulus lewisii - 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America', (Fl. Amer. Sept.), 2:427, t.20, 1813
Rubus spectabilis - 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America', (Fl. Amer. Sept.), 1:384, t.16, 1813
Trillium ovatum - 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America', (Fl. Amer. Sept.), 1:216, 1813

Raf. - Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, 1783-1840
Orthilia - 'Autikon Botanikon', (Autik. Bot.), 103, 1840
Clintonia - 'American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review', (Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev.), 2(4):266, 1818
Corallorhiza maculata - 'American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review', (Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev.), 2(2):119, 1817
Goodyera oblongifolia - '', (Herb.), 76, 1833
Lomatium - 'Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle et des Arts', (J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts), 89:101, 1819

Reveal - James Lauritz Reveal, 1941-
Dodecatheon jeffreyi, A.R. Mast & Reveal - 'Brittonia; a Series of Botanical Papers.', (Brittonia), New York, 59(1):81, 2007
Streptopus lanceolatus - 'Phytologia; Designed to Expedite Botanical Publication.', (Phytologia), New York, 74(3):187, 1993

Rich. - Louis Claude Marie Richard, 1754-1821
Platanthera - 'De Orchideis Europaeis Annotationes', (De Orchid. Eur.), 26, 1817; preprint from 'Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.' (Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.), Paris, 4:48, 1818

Richardson - John Richardson, 1787-1865

Rose - Joseph Nelson Rose, 1862-1928
Lomatium martindalei, J.M. Coult. & Rose - 'Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Smithsonian Institution', (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb.), 7:225, 1900

Rydb. -
Piperia - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), New York, USA, 28(5):269, 1901
Piperia unalascensis - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), New York, USA, 28(5):270, 1901
Smelowskia americana - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), New York, USA, 29:239, 1902

Salisb. - Richard Anthony Salisbury, 1761-1829
Disporum - 'Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London', (Trans. Hort. Soc. London), 1:331, 1812
Calypso - 'Paradisus Londinensis: or Coloured Figures of Plants Cultivated in the vicinity of the Metropolis. London', (Parad. Lond.), t.89, 1807

Schltdl. - Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal, 1794-1866
Rubus ursinus, Cham. & Schltdl. - 'Linnaea; Ein Journal für die Botanik in ihrem ganzen Umfange.', (Linnaea), Berlin, 2(1):11, 1827

Schmidel - Casimir Christoph Schmidel, 1718-1792
Penstemon - 'Icones Plantarum et Analyses Partium aeri Incisae atque Vivis Coloribus Insignitae Adiectis Indicibus Nominum Necessariis Figurarum Explicationibus et Brevibus Animadversonibus quas Composuit D. Casimirus Christophorus Schmiedel ... Curante et Edente Georgio Wolfgang Knorrio.', (Icon. Pl., Ed. Keller), Nürnberg, 1763

Schott - Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, 1794-1865
Lysichiton - 'Oesterreichisches Botanisches Wochenblatt. Gemeinnütziges Organ für Botanik.', (Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl.), Vienna, 7:62, 1857

W.J. Schrenk - Willi Jürgen Schrenk, 1945-
Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis - 'Die Orchidee.', (Orchidee (Hamburg)), Hamburg-Othmarschen & Hamburg, 28(3):99, 1977

Schult. - Josef (Joseph) August Schultes, 1773-1831

Schult. f. - Julius Hermann Schultes, 1804-1840

Sealy - Joseph Robert Sealy, 1907-
Fritillaria affinis - 'Hooker's Icones Plantarum; or Figures, with brief Descriptive Characters and Remarks of New or Rare Plants', (Hooker's Icon. Pl.), 39(1/2):239, 1980

Sheviak -
Platanthera aquilonis - 'Lindleyana; Scientific Journal of the American Orchid Society.', (Lindleyana), West Palm Beach, FL, USA, 14(4):193(-203, figs. 1-5), 1999

Small - John Kunkel Small 1869-1938

Sm. - James Edward Smith, 1759-1828
Brodiaea congesta - 'Transactions of the Linnean Society of London.', (Trans. Linn. Soc. London), London, 10(1):3, t.1, 1810
Pyrola picta - in Rees' Cyclopaedia, (Rees Cycl.), XXIX, n. 8, 1817 (?)
Rubus ursinus - Pl. Ic. Ined. t.63,

Spreng. - Kurt (Curt) Polycarp Joachim Sprengel
Chimaphila menziesii - 'Systema vegetabilium', (Syst. Veg.), [Caroli Linnaeus], Editio decima sexta, (ed. 16), Gottingae [Göttingen], 2:317, 1825
Lonicera involucrata - 'Systema vegetabilium', (Syst. Veg.), [Caroli Linnaeus], Editio decima sexta, (ed. 16), Gottingae [Göttingen], 1:759, 1825

H.St.John - Harold St.John, 1892-1991
Lysichiton americanus, Hultén & H.St.John - 'Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift Utgifven af Svenska Botaniska Foreningen.', (Svensk Bot. Tidskr.), Stockholm, 25:455, fig. 1,2, pl. 4., 1931

Torr. - John Torrey, 1796-1873
Allotropa, Torr. & A. Gray - 'Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Description of the Mosses and Liverworts',
(Pacif. Railr. Rep.), [Williamson & Abbot], 6(3, Nos. 1-2), 81, 1858
Allotropa virgata, Torr. & A. Gray - 'Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Description of the Mosses and Liverworts',
(Pacif. Railr. Rep.), [Williamson & Abbot], 6(3, Nos. 1-2), 80, footnote (-81, footnote), 1858
Prosartes hookeri - 'Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Description of the Mosses and Liverworts',
(Pacif. Railr. Rep.), 4:144
Oxalis oregana, Torr. & A. Gray - 'Flora of North America, A',
(Fl. N. Amer.), [Torrey & A. Gray], 1:211, 1838

Tisch - Edward L. Tisch
Corallorhiza maculata var ozettensis - 'Madroño', Journal of the California Botanical Society, Berkeley, CA, USA, 48(1):40, 2001

Traub - Hamilton Paul Traub, 1890-1983
Brodiaeoideae - 'Plant life.', (Pl. Life (Stanford)), Stanford, CA, USA, 28:131, 1972

Vail - Anna Murray Vail, 1863-1955
Trautvetteria caroliniensis - 'Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club', (Mem. Torrey Bot. Club), 2:42, 1890

Van Houtte - Louis Benoît Van Houtte, 1810-1876
Dodecatheon jeffreyi - 'Flore des Serres et des Jardins de l'Europe.', (Fl. Serres Jard. Eur.), Ghent, 16(7-8):99 (t. 1662), 1867

Walp. - Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers, 1816-1853
Dicentra formosa - 'Repertorium Botanices Systematicae', (Repert. Bot. Syst.), 1(1):118, 1842

Walter - Thomas Walter, 1740-1789

S. Watson - Sereno Watson, 1826-1892
Erysimum arenicola - 'Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.', (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts), Boston, MA, USA, 26:124, 1891
Erythronium montanum - 'Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.', (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts), Boston, MA, USA, 26:130, 1891

Wiegand - Karl McKay Wiegand, 1873-1942
Allium crenulatum - 'Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.', (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club), New York, USA, 26:135, pl.355, 1899

F. H. Wigg. - Friedrich Heinrich (Fridrich Hindrich) Wiggers (Wichers), 1746-1811
Maianthemum - 'Primitiae Florae Holsaticae...Kiel', (Prim. Fl. Holsat.), 14, 1780

Willd. - Carl Ludwig von Willdenow, 1765-1812
Actaea rubra - 'Enumeratio Plantarum Horti Regii Botanici Berolinensis: continens descriptiones omnium vegetabilium in horto dicto cultorum.', (Enum. Pl.), [D. Car. Lud. Willdenow], Berolini [Berlin], 1:561, 1809
Lathyrus japonicus - 'Species Plantarum. Editio Quarta.', (Sp. Pl., ed. 4), Berolini [Berlin], 3(2):1092, 1802

Zomlefer - Wendy Beth Zomlefer, 1954-
Anticlea occidentalis, Zomlefer & Judd - 'Novon; a Journal for Botanical Nomenclature.', (Novon), St. Louis, MO, USA, 12(2):303, 2001


Notice on notation:
The standard abbreviations of the authors, describing and naming the various plants (botanical authors) are given and expanded.
Their original publications are listed under the author's name, as provided by the International Plants Name Index [w10], with some minor changes as follows:
To avoid further decryption of abbreviations, the full name of the journal or other source is given, followed by their standard abbreviation in parentheses.
The names of publishers/editors of certain journals are provided in brackets (e.g. [Caroli Linnaeus]).
Also the present names of places or cities of publication, which were only named in Latin in the original title of the publication, are added in brackets behind the Latin name, e.g. Londini [London].
If an authorship denotes an 'ex', e.g. Batsch ex Borkh., only the latter author's publication is mentioned, similarily only the last author's publication is listed,
if a re-classification had occured, which is commonly denoted by enclosing the original author's name in parentheses, e.g. like in (L.) A. Gray.


References:

General references and textbooks:

[g01]: Pojar, Jim, McKinnon, Andy (eds.) et al., 'Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast', revised edition, lone pine publishing, 1994
[g02]: Whitney, Stephen 'Western Forests', National Audobon Society, A. Knopf Inc., 1985

WWW resources:

[w01]: plants.usda.gov, PLANTS, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) plants database
[w02]: calphotos.berkeley.edu, CalPhotos, a photograph database hosted by the Biodiversity Sciences Technology Group (BSCIT) of the University of California, Berkeley, USA
[w03]: www.burkemuseum.org/herbarium, Herbarium of the University of Washington, WA, USA at the Burke Museum, especially useful is the WTU Image Collection
[w04]: ibis.geog.ubc.ca/biodiversity/eflora/, E-Flora BC, an electronic atlas of the Flora of British Columbia, hosted at the University of British Columbia, Canada
[w05]: www.pnwflowers.com, Wildflowers of the Pacific Northwest by Turner Photographics, Washington, USA
[w06]: www.wanativeorchids.com, Native Orchids of Washington, USA
[w07]: www.pacificbulbsociety.org, Pacific Bulb Society, USA
[w08]: nwwildflowers.wordpress.com, A collection of Flora from the Pacific wonderland, USA
[w09]: www.pnwherbaria.org, Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria, USA
[w10]: www.ipni.org, International Plant Names Index
[w11]: www.theplantlist.org, A working list of all plant species



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